Jeoloji Münendisliği Dergisi
Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi
ISSN: 1016-9172 | e-ISSN: 2564-6753 | Period Tri-annual: Yılda 2 Sayı | Founded: 1977
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2021 HAZİRAN Cilt 45 Sayı 1

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Evaluation of Behavior and Support Systems based on Short and Long Term Soil Parameters of a Large Diameter Tunnel Excavated in Fault Zone (T36 Tunnel, Ankara-Istanbul High Speed Train Project)
Ebu Bekir Aygar Candan Gökçeoğlu
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ABSTRACT:  Support system design has always been a critical engineering problem for large-scale tunnels excavated withinfault zones. In fault zones, it is possible to encounter face and ceiling stability problems encountered during thetunnel excavation in the short term and failures in the support systems due to squeezing in the long term. For thisreason, when designing support systems, short-term and long-term parameters should be considered. The mostimportant factors in selecting the support system to be installed are to describe the geological conditions well andthe correct selection of geotechnical design parameters. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate  the support design that considers the short- and long-term parameters for the Ankara-Istanbul High Speed TrainProject, T36 tunnel excavated within the fault zone. The total length of the T36 tunnel is 4100 m, and excavation andsupport works have been completed under a maximum overburden thickness of 180 m. In the fault zone transition,the supports were made under the overburden thickness of 115 m, and face stability problems were encountered inthe short term and squeezing problems in the tunnel in the long term. In this study, the causes of deformations in thetunnel affecting the tunnel in the short and long term are discussed and numerical analysis and support systems areexamined. Moreover, the criteria for fault zone crossings, which is one of the most important issues for tunneling,are discussed.

  • Fault Zone

  • High Speed Train Project

  • Tunnel Support System

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  • Aygar, E., 2007. Investigation of the Bolu Tunnel Stability by Means of Static and Dynamic Analyses. Hacettepe University, Department of Mining Engineering, Ankara, PhD Thesis, 273 p.

  • Aygar, E., 2020. Evaluation of New Austrain Tunneling Method applied to Bolu tunnel’s weak rocks. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnial Engineering, 12(3), 541-556.

  • Aygar, E.B., Gokceoglu, C., 2019. Ankara-İstanbul High Speed Railway Projects, the problems encountered at T13 Tunnel Fault Zone and solution suggestions, Proceedings of the 26th International Mining Congress and Exhibition of Turkey, 197–205.

  • Aygar, E.B., Gokceoglu, C., 2020a. Problems encountered during a railway tunnel excavation in squeezing and swelling materials and possible engineering measures: a case study from Turkey. Sustainability, 12, 1166, su12031166.

  • Aygar, E., Gökçeoğlu, C., 2020b. Bir tünelde portal ve tünel stabilitesi ilişkisi (Ankara – Sivas Yüksek Hızlı Demiryolu Projesi, T3 Tüneli). Bilimsel Madencilik Dergisi, 59 (3), 157-168.

  • Aygar, E., Gökçeoğlu, C., 2020c. Zayıf zeminlerde açılan büyük çaplı bir tünelin destek sistemi tasarımı (Çukurçayır-2 Tüneli, Trabzon). Yer Altı Kaynakları Dergisi, 18, 97-118.

  • Aygar, E., Gökçeoğlu, C., 2020d. Kohezyonsuz zeminde tünelcilik (T12 Tüneli, Bursa - Yenişehir Yüksek Hızlı Tren Demiryolu Projesi): sorunlar ve çözümler. Yer Mühendisliği, 14 (8), 26 – 34.

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  • Investigation on the Change of Physical and Strength Properties of Calcarenite Exposed to High Temperatures
    Cavit Atalar Hakan Ersoy Murat Karahan M.oğuz Sünnetci
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the changes in the index and strength properties of calcarenites, which are widely used as buildingstone in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, after being subjected to high temperatures between 200 and1000oC, and the effects of high temperatures on microstructure of the calcarenite were investigated by using electronmicroscope images. In order to represent a real fire incident, the samples were heated using the temperature-timecurves recommended by Eurocode, and left to cool at room temperature after 2 hours of exposure at target temperature.After the experimental studies, it was observed that there was no significant change in density and weight loss valuesup to 600 oC. After 600oC, a sudden decrease in density was recorded, at 1000 oC the density dropped below 1 due to microcracks. Likewise, the weight loss value reached 41% depending on the calcination process observed in calcites.P-wave velocity and tensile strength values decreased continuously depending on the temperature. However, thisdecrease became more pronounced after 600 oC and reached the most prominent level after 800 oC. In SEM images,discontinuity formation was observed due to the agglomeration that developed especially after 600 oC. This situationis considered as the main reason for the decrease in strength. In experimental studies applied by Eurocode, it isstated that the temperature of a fire that will occur outside the building will not exceed 680oC, and in a fire that willoccur indoors, the temperature will exceed 1000 oC. For this reason, it is recommended that calcarenites, which arethe subject of the study, are used only as outer coatings in buildings

  • Strength

  • Calcarenite

  • SEM

  • Fire

  • High Temperature

  • KKTC

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  • Crosby, Z.K., Gullet, P.M., Akers, S.A., Graham, S.S., 2018. Characterization of mechanical behavior of slam limestone containing thermally induced microcracks. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 101, 54-62

  • Dong, Z., Sun, Q., Ye, J., Zhang, W., 2019. Changes in color and roughness of red sandstone at high temperatures. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, s10064-019-01678-w.

  • Ersoy, H., Kolaylı, H., Karahan, M., Harputlu Karahan, H., Sünnetci, M.O., 2019. Effect of thermal damage on mineralogical and strength properties of basic volcanic rocks exposed to high temperatures. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 78, 1515–1525

  • Ersoy, H., Atalar, C., Sünnetci, M.O., Kolaylı, H., Karahan, M., Fırat Ersoy, A., 2021a. Assessment of damage on geo-mechanical and micro-structural properties of weak calcareous rocks exposed to fires using thermal treatment coefficient. Engineering Geology, 284, 1-13.

  • Ersoy, H., Karahan, M., Kolaylı, H., Sünnetci, M.O., 2021b. Influence of mineralogical and microstructural changes on the physical and strength properties of post-thermal-treatment clayey rocks. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 54, 679-694

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  • Gökçeoğlu C., Ulusay R., Sönmez H., 2000. Factors affecting the durability of selected weak and clay-bearing rocks from Turkey, with particular emphasis on the influence of the number of drying and wetting cycles. Engineering Geology, 57, 215–237.

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  • Liu, Z., Yao, Q., Kong, B., Yin, J., 2020. Macro-micro mechanical properties of building sandstone under different thermal damage conditions and thermal stability evaluation using acoustic emission technology. Construction and Building Materials, 246, 118485.

  • Mao, X.B., Zhang, L.Y., Li, T.Z., Liu, H.S., 2009. Properties of failure mode and thermal damage for limestone at high temperature. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 19, 290-294

  • Meng, Q.B., Wang, C.K., Liu, J.F., Zhang, M.W., Lu, M.M., Wu, Y., 2020. Physical and microstructural characteristics of limestone after high temperature exposure. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and Environment, 79, 1259-1274

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  • Qin, Y., Tian, H., Xu, N.X, Chen, Y., 2019. Physical and mechanical properties of granite after hightemperature treatment. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 53, 305–322

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  • Sirdesai, N. N., Singh, T. N., Ranjith, P. G., Singh, R., 2017. Effect of varied durations of thermal treatment on the tensile strength of red sandstone. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 50, 205- 213.

  • Sun, Q., Lu, C., Cao, L., 2016. Thermal properties of sandstone after treatment at high temperature. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 85, 60–66.

  • Tian, H., Kempka, T., Yu, S., Ziegler, M., 2016. Mechanical properties of sandstones exposed to high temperature. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49, 321–327.

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  • Wang, P., Xu, J., Liu, S., 2015. Staged Moduli: A quantitative method to analyze the complete compressive stress–strain response for thermally damaged rock. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 48, 1505-1514.

  • Yang, J., Yun Fu, L., Zhang, W., Wang, Z., 2019. Mechanical propert and thermal damage factor of limestone at high temperature. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 117, 11-19.

  • Yavuz, H., Demirdag, S., Caran, S., 2010. Thermal effect on the physical properties of carbonate rocks. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 47, 94-103.

  • Zhang, L., Mao, X., Liu, R., 2014. Meso-structure and fracture mechanism of mudstone at high temperature. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 24, 433–439.

  • Zhang, W., Sun, Q., Hao, S., Wang, B., 2016. Experimental study on the thermal damage characteristics of limestone and underlying mechanism. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49, 2999–3008.

  • Investigation of Adequacy of Light Rail Systems Route in Erzurum Province in Terms of Ground Safety
    Ömer Lütfü Aydin Emre Kuşkapan Muhammed Yasin Çodur
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    ABSTRACT: Many developed and developing countries use rail systems in addition to road systems in public transportation.One of the most frequently used types of these rail systems is the light rail systems (LRS). The routes of the LRS aregenerally preferred on the existing road route. This situation creates some problems in terms of ground conditions.Since the rail system vehicle weights and passenger capacities are much more than road vehicles, the loads theyapply to the ground are also higher. However, deformations occurring on the road surface generally affect vehiclesand passengers in terms of comfort, while small deformations on rail systems can bring major problems such asaccidents and deaths. For this purpose, it is very important to investigate the ground structure of the rail systemroute and to analyze the suitability situation in order to prevent these problems. In this study, the suitability of theLRS route planned to be built in the city center of Erzurum in terms of physical properties of soil was analyzed. Inthe analysis, it was suggested that some locations were problematic in the results obtained by using the basic rotary drilling, multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), and microtremor methods and ground improvement orrevision of the route was suggested for these points. Where the ground condition is not suitable, an alternative routehas been created by taking passenger`s demand in to consideration.

  • Light Rail Systems

  • Physical Properties of Soil

  • Route Suitability Analysis

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  • Effects of Micro Parameters on Macro Mechanical Rock Behavior: Model Calibration Through Discrete Element Method
    Özge Dinç Göğüş
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    ABSTRACT: The numerical modelling techniques provide quite useful insights about how the interaction between engineeringstructures and host rocks develop. On the other hand, the representation of the real rock domain depends on thereliability of the numerical model used. For this reason, micro parameters of a model must be calibrated accuratelyand model results must be irrespective of the model resolution and/or dimension. Recently, the discrete element  method (DEM) is mostly used to determine the mechanical behaviors of the complex solid materials such as rocks.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of required micro parameters for developing a numerical model-based on such method- on macro mechanical properties and deformation behaviors of a rock. Every micro parameteris analysed individually by performing a number of uniaxial compressive, uniaxial tensile, and triaxial compressivetest simulations through Yade open source DEM code. Obtained results show that the uniaxial compressive strengthof the rock (UCS) mostly depends on micro-cohesion while the uniaxial tensile rock strength (UTS) primarilydepends on tensile strength between the particles. Furthermore, both strength properties are in relation to the microelastic modulus and stiffness ratio. The deformation properties such as Young’s modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio(ν) are directly controlled by the micro-elastic modulus and stiffness ratio. The slope of the rock failure envelope isincreasing with an increase in micro-internal friction angle and the strength ratio (UCS/UTS) is arranged based onthe coordination number assigned at the beginning of the simulation. This study presents the constituents of strengthand deformation properties of a rock according to the interaction between the model parameters. The results provideapplicable, practical and guiding insights in terms of developing numerical models which predict the rock behaviorsbefore the construction of engineering structures

  • Rock Behavior

  • Micro Parameters

  • Mechanical Properties

  • Calibration

  • Discrete Element Method (DEM)

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  • Lanaro. F, Fredriksson, A., 2005. Rock Mechanics Model – Summary of the primary data - Preliminary site description Forsmark area – version 1.2. publikation/1107184/R-05-83.pdf, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB Rapport R-05-83.

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  • Scholtés, L., Donzé, F.V., 2015. A DEM analysis of step-path failure in jointed rock slopes, Mechanics of granular and polycrystalline solids, Comptes Rendus Mécanique, 343(2), 155-165

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  • Investigation of Toppling Failures in an Open Pit Coal Mine Located in the Foot Wall of Eynez Fault-Soma (670-Pillar)
    Batuhan Terli Enes Kalhan Mehmet Yalçin Koca
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    ABSTRACT: 670 pillar is a geological barrier that will trap the rock block falling and rolling from the deformation zone of the Eynez fault as well as to prevent the materials belonging to the landslides to be formed along the fault zone from reaching the coal production area It forms the foot wall of Soma-Eynez  and consists of Neogene aged marls The toppling failures observed in the 670-pillar´s slopes threatened the safety of excavation works for coal production in the open pit t. The maximum runout distances of  rock fragments that had toppled, fallen and rolled at different slope heights as a result of the mentioned mass movements were determined using computer softwares. Theproject excavation limit for  the open pit coal mine was determined by considering the runout distances calculated for different slope heights n this work, toppling failures observed in  the 670-pillar´s slopes were investigated both kinematically and numerically, using stereographic projection and different computer softwares, respectively. Safety factors obtained from different softwares for  the same slope geometries were compared and the effect of frictionangle (ɸ) and cohesion (c) values of the joint surfaces on safety factor that cause toppling failures were investigated. In addition, the time-dependent changes of joint aperture increase rate obtained from 20-deformation measurement points installed on the cracks causing toppling failures were investigated. The areas where the joint aperture increaserate is highest and the areas where the toppling failure is observed in  the pillar´s slope were associated.

  • Toppling Failure

  • Rock Slope Stability

  • Stereographic Projection

  • Joint Aperture Increment Rate

  • Project Excavation Boundary

  • Anon 1979a. Classification of rocks and soils for engineering geological mapping, Part – 1, Rock and soil materials. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 19, 364 – 371.

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  • Effect of Fractal Dimension of Blocks on the Shear Strength of Blocky Pyroclastic Rocks
    Elif Avşar
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the relationships between shear strength of a blocky rock mass consisting of pyroclastic depositsand  the fractal dimension of the blocks within n the rock mass were investigated. Within the scope, triaxial shear testswere performed on specimens extracted from a blocky pyroclastic rock mass that defined as “bimrock” in termsof jeo-mechanical description. Thereby, cohesion (c) and internal friction angle (ɸ) values of the blocks withinin the rock mass were calculated through the fractal dimension solutions and digital image processing analysis Inaddition, uniaxial compressive strength of the rock and d the matrix component of this rock mass were determined Theresults revealed that there are positive and negative linear relationships between DR and c, ɸ and between DF and c,ɸ pairs. It is determined that while the values of both DR and DF increase, the values of ɸ increase and vice versa forcohesion The increase of ɸ with the increase of DR is an indication that the friction also increases by applied shearstresses due to  the increase in the roughness of the block surfaces. Finally the increasing of DR yielded an increasein the sum of the surface areas of the contacts between he matrix and blocks. Thus, the cohesion decreases due to the probable increase of weakness zones that loosen the rock mass.

  • Bimrock

  • Fractal Dimension

  • Roughness of Blocks

  • Shear Strength

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  • Özkan, M.A., 2017. Küçükmuhsine-Sulutaş (Konya batısı, Türkiye) çevresindeki karasal neojen çökellerinin (Geç Miyosen-Erken Pliyosen) stratigrafisi. El-Cezerî Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(3), 382-410.

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  • Xu, W.J., Xu, Q., Hu, R.L., 2011. Study on the shear strength of soil-rock mixture by large scale direct shear test. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 48(8), 1235- 1247.

  • Zhang, H.Y., Xv, W.J., Yu, Y.Z., 2016. Triaxial tests of soil-rock mixtures with different rock block distributions. Soils Foundations, 56(1), 44–56

  • Zhao, Y., Liu, Z., 2018. Study of material composition effects on the mechanical properties of soil-rock mixtures. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2018: 3854727

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  • Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts on Runoff a n d Sediment at t h e Basin Scale: Yuvacık Dam Lake Basin
    Ayfer Özdemir
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative estimations of climate changes on hydrological processes help to understand and  manage waterresource problems such as floods and droughts in the future. This study aims to present the preliminary results of astudy to determine the mpact of climate change on river flow to develop sustainable watershed management plans and to evaluate the possible urban water use and environmental impacts to prepare policies to mitigate its negativeimpacts. In this study the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used as a hydrological model to predicthydrological effects of climate change to better understand and solve future water resource problems. In this context,firstly the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was operated on the e Yuvacık Dam Basin in Marmara Region toreveal the present hydrological situation. The hydrological model was then simulated by using the climate changedata that have 20 km spatial resolution between 2021-2099 years based on RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios thatwere produced by the General Directorate of Meteorology. Thus, the effects of climate change on the amount ofwater and sediment were estimated between these years. According to the RCP 4.5  and  RCP 8.5 scenarios, 2.23% and  2.062% decrease in the average annual rainfall  1.24  0.03 of increase in temperature values werepredicted, respectively. However, an increase in precipitation was expected between April  August. The averagemonthly flows (between 2006-2014) of the e Kazandere, Kirazdere  Serindere rivers recharging the Yuvacık Damin the basin is 0.55, 1.28 1.94 m3/s, respectively. Corresponding modelled flow values based on RCP 4.5  RCP 8.5 scenarios for 2021-2099 period, for Kazandere, Kirazdere  Serindere are 0.14  0.17 m3/s, 0.41  0.33 m3/s, 0.86  0.68 m3/s, respectively. These values show significant decrease in flow rates o the rivers in the future. Moreover the peak flow values of the streams especially for Kazandere  Kirazdere decrease from 8 to2 m3/sec The amount of the monthly average of sediment measured at the Serindere stream station for the years2010-2013 was 49 tons, while it was calculated as 247.58 tons based on RCP 4.5  332.21 tons based on RCP 8.5for 2021-2099 period. According to both scenarios, an increase in the predicted rainfall between April  August,  an increase in temperature will cause mechanical erosion in the basin. Thus the amount of sediment carriedby flow is expected to increase. The Yuvacık Dam is used for providing irrigation  drinking water requirementsof Sakarya  Izmit provinces,  for the prevention of flood as well as for water management during droughtperiods. Therefore,the decrease in the flow rates of the streams recharging he dam will cause a decrease in thewater volume of the dam, hence the future water management planning should be made for the crop pattern in theirrigated areas of the dam  for the drinking water usage. Furthermore, the decrease in  the flow rates will causeto decrease the forest areas in the basin  which in turn will lead to an increase in the amount of erosion. This willcause an increase in the amount of sediment coming to the reservoir thus the service life time of the reservoir willbe shortened

  • Climate Change

  • Hydrology

  • SWAT

  • RCP 4.5

  • RCP 8.5

  • Yuvacık Dam

  • Alp, E., Özcan, Z., 2017. Effects of climate change on diffuse pollution in Lake Mogan Watershed. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2017.

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  • Ahn, S. R., Jeong, J. H., Kim, S. J., 2016. Assessing drought threats to agricultural water supplies under climate change by combining the SWAT and MODSIM models for the Geum River basin, South Korea. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 61(15), 2740–2753. doi:10.1080/02626667.201 5.1112905

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  • Bhatta, B., Shrestha, S., Shrestha, P. K., Talchabhadel, R., 2019. Evaluation and application of a SWAT model to assess the climate change impact on the hydrology of the Himalayan River Basin. CATENA, 181, 104082. doi:10.1016/j. catena.2019.104082.

  • Bucak, T., Trolle, D., Tavşanoğlu, Ü. N., Çakıroğlu, A. İ., Özen, A., Jeppesen, E., Beklioğlu, M., 2018. Modeling the effects of climatic and land use changes on phytoplankton and water quality of the largest Turkish freshwater lake: Lake Beyşehir. Science of The Total Environment, 621, 802-816.

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