Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi
View as PDF
ABSTRACT: Trona mine located in the Beypazarı city? and surrounded by the Başören, Bağözü and Çakıloba villages,, overlays an area of 9 km" approximately. Aim of the study is to investigate the probable hydro geology events during the mine management and determine solutions. Karadoruk and Çakıloba Formations are aquifers, concordancely overlaying the Hırka Formation in which Trona has occurred. These units are confined aquifers on areas bounded by discontinuities,, Trona mine area is divided to two sectors, Elmabeli and Anseki according to the Hydrogeologie events,. Hydrogeological explorations have been carried out during 1984-1986 and 2000-2001, in the mentioned area. As a result of the studies,, groundwater flow in the Elmabeli Sector is towards the K-25 spring (towards the shearing zone of the Zaviye and Kanhceviz Faults), and the average flow rate is 10-13 mfday. Groundwater flow in the Anseki Sector is towards the Zaviye Fault with an average raM, of 8-15 m/day. Ground-waters located in the area are found to be of shallow circulation and similar origin » due to the evaluation of the 34 water samples collected front 19 different locations durind the wet and dry season periods. Brine saples result as deep circulation components.
View as PDF
ABSTRACT: Only 31 % of the energy requirement of Turkey has been supplied by the known reserves and production of the primary energy resources in the country, the rest, 69 % is imported as oil, natural gas and hard coal. According to the future projections, the ratio of the domestic supply will decrease to 25 % in .20.20. The most important two energy resources of Turkey are the hydroelectric energy and lignite,. The total economic potantial in hydroelectric energy is 126 billion kWh and- technical potantial is 216 billion kWh. Today, the average production potential is 44 billion kWh which equals to 12250 MW and corresponds to 35 % of the economic potential, 20 % of the techni .^al potential During the last 50 years, if Turkey had been capable of using bigger part of its Hydroelectric potential today it would have met almost all electric energy need (130 billion kWh) from this resources and it would not have had to import natural gas, oil and hard, coal for this purpose. Our total lignite reserve is 8,3 billion tons.. 69 % of this reserve has lower than `2000 kCal/kg calorific value. So, bigger portion of this resource is suitable for using in thermic power plants,. Yearly production of lignite in Turkey is between 50 and 60 million tons and 85 % of the production is consumed- in thermic power plants which have a total installed capacity of 6500 MW. These power plants produced about 34 billion kWh in 200L On the other hand,, the total lignite reserve of Turkey suitable for electricity production is calculated as Ï05 billion kWh. This means that only 32 % of total potential could be used so far. The unique hard coal deposit of Turkey is in Zonguldak (North of Turkey). The total reserve is 1,1 billion ton.. The coal mining has many difficulties because of the complicated geological structure of the area. Although the reserve seems to be important, the production is being only 2,3 million tons/year for a few years.. Because of low production comparing to the demand, Turkey is importing hard, coal in increasing amount every year., In case of using of ail the hard, coal reserve for electricity, 16 billion kWh could be proueed. Today, the production front the hard coal is only 4 billion kWh (480 A4W) The total electricity production capacity of three energy resources mentioned above (126+105+16) is 247 billion kWh equivalent This value is almost double of today`s electricity consumption of Turkey. But only 32 billion kWh part of this has been produced. Other primary resources, crude oil and natural gas fields are concentrated in SE Anatolia and Thrace, but the production is far from the covering of the consumption. The oil and natural gas import of Turkey has been increased every year with larger amount In 2002, 2,4 million tons crude oil was produced, 29,6 million tons were consumed. Natural gas production was 407 million m3 and consumption was 17,7 billion m3.. Little production of asphaltite from two areas in SE Anatolia is used locally for heating.. Apart front hydroelectrical energy, other renevable resources such as geothermal wind and. solar energy are also important resources but all these have only 4 % share in our total primary energy production. Occurences of uranium, thorium and oil shales have been known in Turkey, but there is no production of these resources, Uranium deposits occur in Western Anatolia,, but their grades are low. Only one thorium deposit is in Eskişehir-Beylikahır. There are .some technological problems for process. The oil shales are also situated in western Anatolia, Their calorific values are low and they have some production difficulties, Turkey has not been explored in the real sense for energy resources as well as other ore deposits. The coal explorations made so far are not much more than "outcrop mining" and that`s why the potential in the `"covered areas`" has not been known. Because coal is a productofa sedimentary basin,, the basin should be examined as a whole.. But the minig laws, including the 3213 law in force, describes the exploration fields within the mining claim areas which is contrary the basin idea, The exploration of cranium and thorium has not been realized for more than 15 years and the expioration team was broken up. `There has not enough drilling for oil and- natural gas exploration. Similar situation also appears for other energy resources.. The primary things should be done which are as follows: MTA is a resposible organization for exploration of all energy resources except oil and hydroeiectrical energy which sould be supported by young personnel and appropriate equipment, these personnel, should be trained quickly for exploration in basins as mentioned above, the mining law should be rearranged for a new exploration attack independent to the mining claim areas in certain .After doing all of these,, new resources and new reserves are expected to be found
View as PDF
ABSTRACT: Ecemiş Fault corridor includes huge landslides with several billions cubic meters, along Pozantı - Çamardı trough The trinity water-discontinuity-clay (WDC) is the main cause of geotechnical problems, The trinity WDC is well developed in this trough and plays a significant role in the formation of these landslides,. However, this trinity has created appreciably fertile lands for fanning. The Kamıştı dam, designed by the DSI (State Hydraulic Works), is on the downstream part of the Ecemiş corridor.. Upon the construction of this dßm, the extensive unstable masses on slopes of the reservoir will slide in to the dam to finish the economic life of the project. The conventional dams, as suggested by the DSI, destroy and/or burry natural and historical monuments forever. Besides thai, such dams change the prevailing climate.. In general, the dams with a wide reservoir lake inhibit snowfall and thus reduce subsurface infiltration. However, the proposed pressure pipeline system, has many advantages in terms of timing, environment safety-security and cost (TESC). It can generate more energy with less cost and saves the environment. The recommended project pressure pipe system consists of S small dams on the tributaries» S regulators on Ecemiş stream., S pipelines, ^ power plants.