Jeoloji Münendisliği Dergisi
Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

2004 ARALIK Cilt 28 Sayı 2
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Jeotermal Suların Rezervuar Sıcaklığının Tahmininde Kullanılan Jeotermometre Hesaplamaları İçin Bilgisayar Programı
Müfit Şefik Doğdu
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ABSTRACT: Geothermometers are one ofthe most important methods used for determining the geothermal water reservoir temperature. Chemical content ofthe thermal water that was acquired by the water-rock interaction is used in the geothermometer equations. Determination of possible reservoir temperature ofthe thermal water is quite important for development and operation of the thermal waters. in spite ofbeing lots of geothermometer type like cation, silica, gas and isotope, generally cation and silica geothermometers arepreferred because their analyses and evaluations are easy. in the scope ofthis study, a computer programme has been prepared by using ofthe Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 programming language and aim of this programme is determining the thermal water reservoir temperature by silica and cation geothermometer equations. Majör ion order which denotes the water type; majör ion balance which indicates the accuracy ofthe water analyses; and maturity index which indicates the application ofthe Na-K geothermometers are suitable or not to thermal water are determined by this programme in addition to the geothermometer calculations. Appropriateness of the reservoir rock mineral composition to the based mineral used in geothermometer equations, the chemical equilibrium behveen water and rock, cold water mixing, chemical changes in the thermal water when it was ascending, etc. must always be taken in to consideration during the geothermometer applications, in terms ofevaluations and reliability.

  • geothermal water

  • geothermometer

  • reservoir temperature

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  • Doğdu, M . (2004). Jeotermal Suların Rezervuar Sıcaklığının Tahmininde Kullanılan Jeotermometre Hesaplamaları İçin Bilgisayar Programı . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 28 (2) , 1-12 . Retrieved from

  • Doğdu, M . Jeotermal Suların Rezervuar Sıcaklığının Tahmininde Kullanılan Jeotermometre Hesaplamaları İçin Bilgisayar Programı. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 28 (2004 ): 1-12

  • Use of Natura/ Zeolites for Wastewater Treatment
    Ayşenur Uğurlu Aytunç Pinar
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    ABSTRACT: Sol id waste dumping on land is the most practical and economical method among other solid waste treatment methods. However, the leachate generated from these areas is a significant environmental hazard. The landfıll leachate is usually high strength wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemicaloxygen demand (BOD) values, as welli as with high ammonium ion concentrations. The objective of this study is to investigate the capacity of natura zeolite (clinoptilolite) to remove ammonium ions present in landfıll leachate under both batch andjlow-through conditions. The ammonium adsorption capacity of zeolites from Bigadiç and Gördes area in Turkey was tested with respect to ammonium concentration in leachate and zeolite partide size. Ammonium adsorption increased with decreasing partide size. On the other hand, both zeolite types exhibited similar ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) removing capacity. Ammonium adsorption capacity increased with increased ammonium concentration in the leachate. it was observed that ammonium exchange capacity of the zeolites was reduced due to the competition with coexisting cations present in the leachate.

  • Ammonium removal

  • clinoptilolite

  • landfıll leachate

  • zeolite

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  • Liu, C.H. ve Lo, K.V., 2001a. Ammonia removal from composting leachate using zeolite.I. Characterization of Zeolite. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 36(9), 1671-1688.

  • Liu, C.H. ve Lo, K.V., 2001b. Ammonia removal from composting leachate using zeolite.II. A study using continuous flow packed column. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 36(5), 667-675.

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  • Uğurlu, A , Pınar, A . (2004). Doğal Zeolitlerin Atıksu Arıtımında Kullanımı . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 28 (2) , 13-20 . Retrieved from

  • Uğurlu, A , Pınar, A . Doğal Zeolitlerin Atıksu Arıtımında Kullanımı. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 28 (2004 ): 13-20

  • Effects of Lithology and Settlement Areas on Groundwater Pollution : Ulupınar Spring, Sorkuncak-Eğirdir-Isparta
    Ali Yalçin Ayşen Davraz Mehmet Özçelik
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    ABSTRACT: Water is the most important substancefor human life. So, settings occur generally near surface vaters or springs. Depending on development oftechnology, consumption ofyvater and pollution of groundwater and surface waters increases. in ourcountry, in many places especially in countrysides, settings have beenfoundednear springs or in recharge areas. Due to wastes ofthese settings, groıındwater is polluted rapidly depending on geologicalfeatures. So health problems arise due to the pollution of ground water.  Sorkuncak village, Eğirdir-lsparta, is an examplefor settlement area ofthis kind. Flow direction of surface and groundwater in Sorkuncak village founded in a valley, is south to north. Contact type Ulupınar spring occurring in the lover level ofthe village has been used to supply the water demand of the village. The spring is recharged and issues from travertine. Travertine cropps out or located near surface. in some areas, these travertines are covered by thin alluvium deposits. Aquifer is polluted by the domestic and agriculture wastes. So, health or juridical problems arise. High colibacillus concentration were detected. Pollution and colibacillus concentration increases during rainy seasons. As a result, toprevent health problem and pollution, settlements should be founded out of recharge areas ofthe springs. Associated with this, there are law related problems along with health problems. High level of colyform (240 units) has been determined as a result ofanalyzing water samples which are obtained from Uluıinar spring in different time scales. When results of analyze has been examined, it has been that impurity and amount of colyform increasing with seasons which have rainfalls. New residential areas must be selected as possible as outside of the catchment areas of springs to prevent underground watersfrom impurity andplagues in thefuture.

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  • Yalçın, A , Davraz, A , Özçelik, M . (2004). Effects of Lithology and Settlement Areas on Groundwater Pollution : Ulupınar Spring, Sorkuncak-Eğirdir-Isparta . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 28 (2) , . Retrieved from

  • Yalçın, A , Davraz, A , Özçelik, M . Effects of Lithology and Settlement Areas on Groundwater Pollution : Ulupınar Spring, Sorkuncak-Eğirdir-Isparta. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 28 (2004 ):

  • Coals Of The Southern Marmara Region
    İlker Şengüler
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    ABSTRACT: Southern Marmara Region is important in terms of coal in Turkey. Ulubat, Bursa and İnegöl faults divided the region in to two parts. Northern part of the region Upper Miocene-Pliocene aged Mudanya, Yenişehir and İnegöl, southern part of the region Lower Miocene-Pliocene aged Mustafakemalpaşa, Orhaneli and Domaniç basins wereformed. Coalifıcation was completed in the Neogene basins locating in the southern Marmara region in the Early-Late Miocene. in spite of these the same age period coal are formed from each other independently. Neither economic coal occurences nor suitable basin conditions were realized during the Pliocene. From the vitrinite reflection values, the coals seem to be classified as sub bituminous coal (ASTM) and brown coal (DIN) in rank

  • Southern Marmara Region

  • coal (lignite)

  • Baş, H. (1983) Domaniç, Tavşanlı, Gediz, Kütahya yörelerinin Tersiyer jeolojisi ve volkanitlerinin petrolojisi. MTA Raporu, No. 7293 (yayınlanmamış), Ankara.

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  • Le Pichon, X. ve Angelier, J. (1979) The Hellenic arc and trench system: A key to the neotectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterrenaen area. Tectonophysics, 60, 1-42

  • Le Pichon, X. ve Angelier, J. (1981) The Aegean Sea. Phil. Trans. R. Soc, A 300, 357-372, London

  • Seyitoğlu, G. ve Scott, B. (1991) Late Cenozoic crustal extension and basin formation in west Turkey. Geological Magazine, 128 (2), 155-166.

  • Şaroğlu, F. ve Yılmaz, Y. (1990) Batı Anadolu` da Neojen de formasyonunun tipleri ve havza gelişimi üzerine bazı görüşler. Türkiye 8. Petrol Kongresi, Ankara.

  • Şengör, A.M.C., Görür, N. ve Şaroğlu, F. (1985) Strike-slip deformation basin formation and sedimentation: Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. in Strike-slip Faultig and Basin Formatio

  • Şengüler, L, Akman, Ü., Taka, M., Dümenci, S., Kalkan, t., Kır, N. ve Sulu, K, (2003) Güney Marmara Neojen havzalarının kömür potansiyeli. 56. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı Bildiri Özleri Kitabı, 212-213, Ankara.

  • Şengüler, İ . (2004). Güney Marmara Bölgesi Kömürleri . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 28 (2) , 31-38 . Retrieved from

  • Şengüler, İ . Güney Marmara Bölgesi Kömürleri. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 28 (2004 ): 31-38

  • Geology, Petrography and Petrology ofthe Rapakivi Granites; The Rapakivi Granites of Finland
    Mehmet Arslan Zafer Aslan
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    ABSTRACT: The granites showing textures of plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacryst are known as "Rapakivi Granites". Rapakivi granites are generally Proterozoic (1.8 to 1.0 Ga) in age, and Southern Finland is the type area ofthe rapakivi granites although they are preseni in Ukraine the Baltic countries, South Greenland, mid-continental and western USA, Venezuela, Brazil, Botswana and several other Precambrian shield areas. Rapakivi granites are shallow level, multi-phctsc batholiths and stocks, having less than 10 km thick horizontal sheet-like bodies. The magmatic association of rapakivi granites is bimodal. The mafic members are represented by diabase dykes, gabbroids and anorthosites and thefelsic members by A-type granites, syenites and ryholites. The oldest rapakivi granites are generally hornblende-biotite granites whereas the youngest ones are topaz-bearing alkali feldspar granites. in these rocks, plagioclase (andesine or oligoclase), orthoclase, microcline, quartz, hornblende and biotite are present as well as accessory fluorite, anatase, zircon andilmenite. The rapakivi granites are generally metaluminous or marginally peraluminous rocks, and have high Fe/(Fe+Mg). They show chemical characteristics of within-plate granites and A-type granites, and have high K andNa contents. Furthermore, they have higher Si, K, FRb, Ga, Zr, Hf, Th. U, Zn and REE contents andK/Na, Ga/Al, Fe/Mg ratios, andlower Ca, Mg, Al, P and Sr abundances than granitte rocks in general. Theformation of rapakivi granites of Finland can best be interpreted by the mafic under-plate model. Mantle-derived mafic magmas intruded at the mantle-crust boundary and in to lower crust, and caused extensive partial melting ofthe deep crust, thus forming the rapakivi granites. The tectonic settings, bimodal magmatic association, geochemistry and isotope geology of the rapakivi granites can best be explained by mafic underplating, but the reasonfor the mantle melting remains largely open.

  • A-type granite

  • Finland

  • Geochemistry

  • Magma mixing

  • Metaluminous

  • Rapakivi granite

  • Mİ, M„ Andersson, U.B., Landqvist, T. ve Sundblad, K. (Eds.), 1997. Rapakivi granites and related rocks in central Sweden. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning series Ca 87,99p.

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  • Anderson, J.L., 1983. Proterozoic anorogenic granite plutonism of North America, in: Medaris, L.G., Jr, Byres, C.W., Mickelson, D.M., Shanks, W.C. (Eds.), Proterozoic Geology: Selected papers from an International Proterozoic Symposium. Geol. Soc. Am

  • Bettencourt, J.S., Tosdal, R.W., Leite Jr., W.B. ve Payolla, B.L., 1999. Mesoproterozoic rapakivi granites of the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern border of the Amazonian craton, Brasil: 1. Reconnaissance U-Pb geochronology and regional implicatio

  • Bonin, B., 1996, A-type granite ring complexes: mantle origin throughcrustal filters and the anorthosite-rapakivi magmatism connection. in: Demaiffe, D., (Ed.), Petrology and Geochemistry of Magmatic Suites of Rocks in the Continental and Oceanic Cru

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  • Brown, P.E., Dempster, T.J., Harrison, T.N. ve Hutton, D.H.W., 1992. The rapakivi granites of S. Greeland-crustal melting in response to extensional teetonics and magmatic underplating. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh Earth Sci., 83,173-178.

  • Calzia, J.P., Ramo, O.T., 1997. The granite of Kingston Peak: petrogenesis of a middle Miocene post-subduction granite in the southern Death Valley region, California. TerraNova 9, EUG9 Abstract, 458

  • Eklund, O., ve Shebanov, A.D., 1999. Origin of the rapakivi texture by sub-isothermal decompression. Precambrian Research, 95,129-146.

  • Eklund, O., Fröjdö, S. ve Lindberg, B., 1994. Magma nvbeing, the petrogenetic link between anorthositic suites and rapakivi granites, Aland, SW Finland. Mineralogy and Petrology, 50,3-19.

  • Emslie, R.F., 1978. Anorthosites, rapakivi granites, and Late Proterozoic rifting of North America. Precambrian Research, 7,61-69.

  • Frost, C.D. ve Frost, B.R., 1997. Reduced rapakivi-type granites: the tholeiite

  • Arslan, M , Aslan, Z . (2004). Rapakivi Granitlerinin Jeolojisi, Petrografisi ve Petrolojisi; Finlandiya Rapakivi Granitleri . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 28 (2) , 39-51 . Retrieved from

  • Arslan, M , Aslan, Z . Rapakivi Granitlerinin Jeolojisi, Petrografisi ve Petrolojisi; Finlandiya Rapakivi Granitleri. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 28 (2004 ): 39-51

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