Jeoloji Münendisliği Dergisi
Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

1991 MAYIS
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TO OUR READERS
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Reefs: General characteristics, faciès, evolution and économie importance
Sevim Tuzcu Mustafa Buydaycioğlu
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ABSTRACT: Reefs have long been subject of considerable, interest for their importance in carbonate depositional systems » sea-level changes,, paleontology and hydrocarbon: exploration, at present there exist a large amount of information on reefs •and refold carbonate bodies in `the. related literature. The aim of this paper is to provide an. introductory review on. reefs to contribute towards reef studies. Reef is a rigid.,, wave resistant organic structure, mainly built by large, frame building skeletal metazoans (corals and corralinie algae) .and the associated accessory organisms, such, as encrusting foraminifers, calcareous algae, bryozoas,,, mollusk., sponges etc, that act as fr.amebin.ders and sediment producers. Reefs, develope at the well-lighted, aerated., nutrient-rich,,, warm .and shallow waters- of the stable sheld seas and carbonate platforms of passive- continental margins. Reef growth and development is controlled by a number of physical, and. biological factors including nature of the reef building, organisms, underlying topography» sea-level changes and wave energy. Reefs, though differing in shape -and. dimensions, form topographic highs with, a well-developed as.symmelxi.cal cross-profile characterised by morphological and ecological, zones and the associated, faciès.. Reefs, evolved, through the geological time from Precambiran-Early Paleozoic stromatolite buildups through Mesozoic reefs with Tubiphytes and coral-algal communities .and rudistid reefs to Tertiary .and Modem organic framework, built by heraiatypic scleractinnian corals and coralline algae.

  • Reefs

  • Generic Characters

  • Facies

  • Evolution

  • Economic İmportance

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  • Ignimbrite: Occurenoe and properties
    Ali İhsan Gevrek Nizamettin Kazanci
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    ABSTRACT : Ignimbrite is a type of pyroclastic rocks, and it`s occurence is still debated. Ignîmbrite is an interesting pyroclastic rock for geologist and volc.anolog.isl. because it. covers large areas, and composed of volconic glass, pumice, and lithic clasts. It has been, not observed in active volcanoes, therefore it is found more interesting. Ignimbrites are contenting abundant pumices, laminar flows, the. pyroclastic flow units products and are emplaced at high temperatures.. `They .are occasionally welded. Synonyms are tuff flow, pumice flow, welded tuff, welded mud. flow, and. hot ash flow.

  • İgnimbrite

  • Formation and Features

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  • Walker, G.P.L., 1983 Ignimbrnite types and ignimbrite problems. J. Volcanol. Geotherm., Res. 17, 65-88.

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  • General And Geotechnical Aspects Of The Gerede. - Ankara. And Ankara Peripheral Motorway
    İlyas Yilmazer
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    ABSTRCT : The Gerede - Ankara and Ankara Peripheral Motorway (GAAPM) is about 270 Km long portion of the Turkish Motorway (TM)., The TM is presently being constructed and having a planned total lenght of 3600 Km. It connects the Trans European Motorway (TEM) to the neighboring countries. Iran, Iraq, and Syria.. The GAAPM has. numereous structures, such as major viaducts and bridges.,, overpasses .and underpasses, high cuts, and embankments, and large culverts.. The Gerede - Ankara, section has four 3.75 meter lanes in each direction whereas Peripheral Motorway is designed as five 3.75 meter lanes in each direction. Both have a ten meter wide median, between carriageways.In order to define, the design, parameters a detailed surface and subsurface geotechnical investigations and. a complete testing program are performed.In this respect a 25000 scale regional, 5000 scale vicinty and 10ÖG scale site engineering geological mapping are carried, out. Numerous boreholes, test, pits, and. trenches .are opened,. Both in situ and laboratory tests are executed.Geophysical surveys are also used as supplementary investigation work.Some of the main lithologies,, encountered, along the alignment are nietadetritics, Permo-Triassic limestones, metavolcanics, tectonosedimentary deposits, ophiolites, mainly extrusive igneous rocks, marine sedimentary rocks, lake deposits, alluvium, eoUuviuni, and talus. Their engineering characteristics are briefly given, in the text. Gravity faults are more common than reverse .and thrust faults along the. GAAPM. The motorway design is higjy dependable on large faults especially the ones oblique `to the. motorway. The. other structural features, such as foldings.,, unconfomities,beddings, and joints are widespread along the alignment .and their detailed identification obviously provides valuable information to select appropriate,design parameters.The- GAAPM crosses several perennial streams, dam reservoirs» and swamps. Their extents and bedrock configurations ,are identified, to be able to execute a. proper design. Shallow groundwater plains, soft marshy grounds» seeps» springs, .and shallow artesian and leaky aquifers, `are some of the common hydrogeological features, along the .alignment. It is well-known that- they do have great influence on ground stability. Hence hydrogeological investigation has formed, one of the main part of the geotechnical studies along the route.

  • Gerede-Ankara

  • Ankara Environment Highway

  • Geotechnical View

  • Lithology

  • Si AL,, 1988 Gerede-Ankara ve Ankara Çevre Otoyolu Jeolojik raporu. Yayınlanmamış, Ankara

  • Hartman, JJ. Richards, D.P. ve Balkır, G., 1990

  • Engineering geology of the Gerede-Ankara and Ankara

  • Peripheral Motorway: AEG Congress`te sunulmak üzere `hazırlanmış mäkele.

  • Ahmet Kartalkanat
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  • Republican Era

  • Of Mining Development

  • Turkey Of Mining Policy

  • Geological Events

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  • Selecting the appropriate ground support for the Alaköprü-Iltısu power tunnel with the RSR. Method (SW KARAMAN)
    Aydin Özsan
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    ABSTRACT : This work consists of determining rock, mass quality and selecting the appropriate support system of the rock units along the proposed Alaköprü - Ilısu tunnel. The main rock units on the tunnel alignment are marl and limestones. The limestone units are blocky in ophiolitic-melange. The, quality of rock massed on the proposed tunnel and. its suitable support were determined by using RSR (Rock. S tructure Rating) classification. RSR values, were obtained, differently for marl, limestone and matrix of the: ophiolitic-malenge along the power tunnel alignment. Hence, the necessary support systems were suggested, for the power tunnel. The RSR Concept, is useful method for selecting steel rib support for rock tunnel

  • Alaköprü-Ilısu Force Tunnel

  • Shoring

  • RSR(rock Structure Rating)

  • Limestone

  • Quality of Rock Mass

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  • Wickham, G..E.., Tiedemann, H.R., and Skinner, E. H., 1974, Ground Support Prediction Model-RSR Concept: Proceedings, Rapid Excavation. Tunneling Conference, American Institution of Mining Engineers, New York, pp 691-707.

  • Ali Dinçel
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  • Plate Tectonics

  • İsland - Springs

  • Seismicity

  • Back-Arc Basin

  • Lithosphere

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