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ABSTRACT: Geology forms an essential basis and the first stage in linear engineering structure projects such as highway. Äs the case presented herein,, geology takes place to complete formality in Turkish motorway projects. However, in such large engineering structure projects route selection, and geology in this selection come first Identification of the medium, in and/or on which the motorway is located has vital importance to orient the alignment and to define the components of the motorway. Geological model studies cover essentially of geology,, hydrogeology, engineering geology and geotechnics., Reliability of each model-depends, that of the former. Each phasefeeds back to increase the confidence level of former models.
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ABSTRACT: The Beşparmak Mountains are located on the Northern part of North Cyprus and lay parallel to the sea, 160 km. in length 10 km in width. Karstiflcation, potential constituent and the hydro-dynamic structure of the Mesozoic aged carbonate rocks, located at high altitudes of the Beşparmak Mountains have been investigated in this study. The Mesozoic aged carbonate roch; dolomite, dolomite limestone and reerystallized limestone are the units suitable for karstification in the exploration area. Surface area of the carbonate rocks is 84 hn2,. Chemical and isotopic samples have been collected, groundwater fluctuations have been observed and investigation wells have been opened for the definition of the karst aquifers., As the result of the geological hydrogeological, drilling and geophysical investigations it was found that the Beşparmak Mountains Karst Aquifers mas formed of independent karstic systems and a total dynamic groundwater potential of approximately 9 x 10 m /year for these systems has been determined,
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ABSTRACT: The ever increasing demand for water resources and its temporal and spatial unavailability in terms of required quantity and quality necessiate its efficent use ormanagement to provide economic, environmental and social benefits. However, the success of water resources management is achieved only by accurately determining the whole relationships among processes effecting the hydrologie system. In this stage, the definition of the system- as a basin within its natural boundaries and determination of its available yield will enable a rational and effective water resources management The so called classical safeyield approach should not be used to determine the available groundwater potential Instead, the sustainability approach, which meets the long-term water demands without creating undesirable effects on the system at the end of active water usage period, must be used,. In the last stage of the water resources management, the sustainable yield should be shared among various users with a water allocation policy by considering the use priorities to provide maximum- benefits for the basin. The effective and efficient water resources management for a basin is only realized by this water allocation policy. This study also presents the water resources management studies in Turkey, the administrative and legal conditions and th.e general recommendations for a basin-wide water resources management
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ABSTRACT: The structure of minig in The Ottoman Empire can be understood by using documents such as; verdict (hüküm), command (ferman), brevet (beraat) voucher (temessiik) which by the centre to administrator (Emin), minister of state (nazır), chief of crops (yörük çeribaşı), mine inspector (maden müfettişi) and ushers (mübaşir), a:ğyan, military officer (zabit) and related persons of mining region until! the acceptance of Field Law (1858)., It is possible to learn some informations such as; mining organisation structure, mine ownership and mining models with mineral trasfer during the Ottoman period from the documents, notebook (Divan-ı Hümayun, Darphane Ahkam Defteri,. Maden Kalemi and Tapu Tahrir Defterleri etc.) and laws in the Government Archives related to the office of Prime Minister, in detail The Ottomans have given great importance to find new ore depositos. The persons called the "prospector`"` were given a tax in order to investigate promising areas. Mine workers were free of all taxes and accepted as in military section., Problems between miners and the other people were solved by the administrator of mine according to Muslim Conanical Laws in place.
The different mining operations of the Ottomans are as follows;
.1. Mine operated by the Goverment,
2. Mine operated under the surveilance ofGoverment,
5., Mine operated by special permission for a certain time.
The mining operations of the Otoman Empire was under the Mini It is possible to examine this organisation in three different categories; A- the direction of mines and C- the persons responsible for the safety of mines.