ABSTRACT: The waste material extracted after ore mining process is floated in the tailing dams within the mining plants. In order to prevent possible water seepage, the geotechnical characteristics of natural building materials of the dams and foundation soils must be determined for the design of reservoir. In this study, the reasons of water seepage from the waste disposal reservoir of Pb-Zn mining plant located at southern Çanakkale, Kalkım town were investigated. In this context, horizontal and vertical distribution and the permeability of the foundation soils at the reservoir areawere determined by trial pits, disturbed/undisturbed sampling and laboratory testing. The optimum water content and maximum dry density of the soils have been tested by standard compaction tests. Moreover, the permeability coefficient of the same soils was tested by falling head permeameter. The clay lining beneath the reservoir is properly compacted based on the related regulations with no permeability problem. However, the seepage from the reservoir is found to be due to the alluvial soils of the stream bed which is not excavated before the construction. Heavy metal and oxidated residual materials were observed in the stream bed. A total length of 100 m of the embankment located on the alluvial soil was removed. This portion of the embankment was re-compacted using the clayey soils with optimum water content and maximum dry density. The seepage from the embankment is completely prevented after re-compaction with a full reservoir
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Ulamış, K , Kılıç, R . Atık Barajlarındaki Su Kaçaklarının İncelenmesi, Çanakkale Örneği. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 41 (2017 ): 91-100
ABSTRACT: In this study, geological and hydrogeological properties of Karagöl and its surroundings were investigated and hydrogeochemical properties and quality of waters were evaluated. The rock units are observed with different age and lithology in the Upper Cretaceous-Quaternary time interval in the study area. The groundwater reservoirs are alluvium and fractured-fissured magmatic rock units with locally limestone, sandstone levels. The most important surface waters are Çoruh River and Karagöl Lake in the region. In order to determine hydrogeochemical properties of the surface and spring waters, hydrochemical analyses were performed. According to the obtained results, the water resources are in Ca-HCO3, Ca-Mg-HCO3, and NaHCO3 facieses. The main factor in the development of water types is water-rock interactions. In general, increase of Na and Ca ions is related to Na-Ca feldspars alteration, while the Mg ions are mainly due to the weathering of silicate minerals such as biotite, amphibole, pyroxene. On the other hand, dominant HCO3 ion shows an increase associated with limestone and clayey limestone units, and also with the secondary calcite minerals which are formed as a result of the feldspar mineral alteration. Water resourcesare classified as 1st water quality in terms of all parameters and suitable for drinking and irrigation.
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Şener, Ş , Kibar, H . Karagöl (Borçka-Artvin) Gölü ve Çevresinin Hidrojeokimyasal İncelemesi. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 41 (2017 ): 101-116
ABSTRACT: With its 52 km2 areal extent, the Lake Köyceğiz is the 16th largest lake in Turkey. As it is indicated in the earlier studies, the lake is meromictic. Within the scope of this study, thermoprobe and CTD measurements were done in April covering 40 locations and spatial distribution of the lake water temperature and the areal distribution of the lake bottom sediments were investigated in detail. Investigations including electrical conductivity and pH measurements at water monitoring locations show that there are physically four distinct water bodies in the Lake Köyceğiz. The water and sediment temperatures in northern basin are slightly less than the southern basin. In addition, subaqueous springs increase the temperature of the water and sediment, and create a positive temperature anomaly around these locations.
Subaqueous Geothermal Spring
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Avşar, Ö , Kurtuluş, B . Köyceğiz Gölü Su ve Taban Sedimanlarının Sıcaklık Dağılımı. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 41 (2017 ): 117-136
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to define the fault related geological structures using gravity data around Trabzon. For this purpose, horizontal gradient magnitude, analytic signal, tilt angle, and hyperbolic of tilt angle techniques were operated. By applying these techniques to the first vertical derivative of the regional gravity data, faultsrelated geological structures were identified from maximum amplitude values with horizontal gradient magnitude and analytic signal maps, and zero amplitude values of the tilt angle and hyperbolic of tilt angle maps for this region. The basement topography was calculated using the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Identified fault-related geological structures were compared with the existing faults in the region. Although there is a good agreement between this study and the previous studies, some new fault-related structures were also identified. There is a significant relationship among the distribution of the fault-related geological structures, mineral deposits, and also earthquake epicenters in the region. This study was resulted to shed some light on the other following small to large scale geological studies for better understanding of the geological structure of the region. It is also believed that the results of the study maybe a guide to the search for new mineral deposits and the identification of risky locations for earthquakes.
Hyperbolic of Tilt Angle
Trabzon and Vicinity
Horizontal Gradient Derivative
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ABSTRACT: Usage of underground space is an old habit for human beings since ancient era. Our ancestors have used caves as a shelter for protection from the wild life and nature, and they excavated caves to extract valuable minerals. They also used them as sanctuaries, tombs or for storage of goods. In addition, they built tunnels to be used as assault systems or to underpass fortifications during ancient warfare. Later on, tunnels were driven to supply water to the towns or to protect the towns from floods. They also built them for communication purposes. Though not knowing the exact time when they were first used, natural underground structures which have several interconnections were also built for underground dwelling purposes through the human history. In the following centuries, due to the need of transportation facilities, transportation tunnels were constructed where new excavation techniques were also used. Navigation canal tunnels, railway tunnels and road tunnels were constructed during that period. All these structures were mostly excavated in rocks. The first excavations were performed manually. Later on, fire technique had been used to excavate more easily. This was followed by the methods in which gunpowder, explosives and tunneling machinery were used. By some means or other, ancient civilizations had used fundamental principles of rock mechanics and applied these principles in the construction of the underground structures. Principles of rock mechanics are the sine qua non for all of these structures and facilities. In this review paper, the history and evaluation of rock mechanics will be given briefly and some examples of historical and monumental underground and rock structures will be presented.
Ancient Underground Rock Structures
History of Rock Mechanics
Rock Mechanics Applications
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Akış, E , Satıcı, Ö . (2017). İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 41 (2) , 155-172 . DOI: 10.24232/jmd.344499
Akış, E , Satıcı, Ö . İlk Çağlardan Günümüze Yeraltı Yapıları, Kaya Yapıları ve Kaya Mekaniği. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 41 (2017 ): 155-172