Jeoloji Münendisliği Dergisi
Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

2019 ARALIK Cilt 43 Sayı 2
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Determination of the Deformability, Modulus Ratios and Anisotrophic Behavior of the Micaschists; A Case Study From Burgaz Dam Site, İzmir-Turkey
Serkan Uslu Mehmet Yalçin Koca
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ABSTRACT: Base rock of the Burgaz dam in the eastern part of the city of İzmir consists of micaschists

having different physical and mechanical properties due to weathering and fracturing. The first

aim is to compute the amount of settlement and ultimate bearing capacity value of micaschist

both in and beneath the cutoff zone by using the results of pressuremeter tests. In addition, data

from in-situ and some laboratory tests, which were used in the establishment of the relations

between elastic modulus of the micaschist rock mass (EM) and uniaxial compressive strength (σc),

EM/Eintact ratios and RQD values. Comparison of in-situ and estimated rock mass deformation moduli by

considering the RQD values was also performed. Pressuremeter tests indicate that for a dam with 115 m

height and a base width of 58 m, the settlement will vary between 2.13 and 2.26 mm. The second aim of

this work is to measure compression and shear wave velocities in order to obtain both the ratio of dynamic

elastic modulus to Poisson′s ratio (E/v)dynamic and to compare (E/v)dynamic to (E/v)static. Test results reveal a

positive linear relation of (E/v)dynamic =(E/v)static0.968. The sonic wave velocity of the micaschist is highly

related to the testing direction. This study not only discusses the relationships between Estatic and sonic

wave velocity (Vp) and Edynamic, but also the anisotropy effect arisen due to the schistosity planes with

different orientations.

  • Dam Structure

  • Micaschist

  • Pressuremeter Test

  • Settlement

  • Rock Material Classification

  • Anisotropy.

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  • Uslu, S , Koca, M . (2019). Determination of the Deformability, Modulus Ratios and Anisotrophic Behavior of the Micaschists; A Case Study From Burgaz Dam Site, Izmir-Turkey . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 43 (2) , 155-185 . DOI: 10.24232/jmd.654888

  • Uslu, S , Koca, M . Determination of the Deformability, Modulus Ratios and Anisotrophic Behavior of the Micaschists; A Case Study From Burgaz Dam Site, Izmir-Turkey. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 43 (2019 ): 155-185

  • Evaluation of Rockfall Susceptibility of Kargabedir Tepe (Ankara-Eskişehir Highway) Region by Cone Propagation Approach Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images
    Aycan Kalender Harun Sönmez
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    ABSTRACT: Rockfall is defined by Varnes (1978) as a type of instability in which rock blocks released from rock masses

    on steep slopes and move at high speed down along the slope. The rock block releases from the source point moves

    downward along a trajectory until its energy is extinguished. In deterministic approaches, a large number of physical

    and mechanical parameters of both slope surface and block, are used as inputs, and therefore the results are closely

    related to accuracy of this number of input parameters. As a reflection of this, empirical approaches, which have

    a very high practical value, are preferred especially in the preparation of rockfall maps on regional scale. The

    cone propagation approach proposed by Jabodeyoff and Labiouse (2011) is a practical method for regional scale

    and stands out among other empirical approaches due to uses only source area map and digital elevation model

    (DEM) as input parameters. In this study, in order to test this method various field studies were carried out in

    Kargabedir rockfall area based on the principle of determination of possible propagation zone on DEM. In the

    field studies carried out at Kargabedir Hill, high resolution aerial photos of the region were taken using a Dron

    (unmanned aerial vehicle-UAV) to obtain a high resolution DEM. Thus, a high-resolution (40 cm/pixel) DEM and

    a very high resolution (5 cm/pixel) orthorectified aerial image were generated for the area. Propagation zone maps

    of Kargabedir rockfall area were prepared for different energy line angle values using high-resolution DEM with

    cone propagation approach. In addition, the positions and dimensions (height/length/width) of the fallen blocks were

    measured in the region. The dimensions and positions of the fallen blocks were also determined from the orthophoto

    and their compatibility with the site measurements was examined. It has been observed that width-length-height

    measurements of the fallen blocks acquired from the field and orthophoto are compatible.

  • Rockfall

  • Cone Propagation Approach

  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

  • Orthorectified Aerial Image

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  • Kalender, A , Sönmez, H . (2019). Kargabedir Tepe (Ankara-Eskişehir Karayolu) Bölgesinin Kaya Düşmesi Duyarlılığının İnsansız Hava Aracı (İHA) Görüntüleri Kullanılarak Konik Yayılım Yaklaşımıyla Değerlendirilmesi . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 43 (

  • Kalender, A , Sönmez, H . Kargabedir Tepe (Ankara-Eskişehir Karayolu) Bölgesinin Kaya Düşmesi Duyarlılığının İnsansız Hava Aracı (İHA) Görüntüleri Kullanılarak Konik Yayılım Yaklaşımıyla Değerlendirilmesi. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 43 (2019 ): 187

  • Evaluation of the Performance of a Rockfall Ditch by 3-Dimensional Rockfall Analyses: Akköy (Ürgüp) Case
    Mutluhan Akin İsmail Dinçer Ahmet Orhan Ali Özgün Ok Müge Akin Tamer Topal
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    ABSTRACT: Rockfall ditches or areas can be constructed in order to protect against rockfalls in settlements that are indanger of rockfalls when the population density is not high. Nevertheless, in the design of such protection structures,essential site-specific engineering studies and analyzes are often not carried out appropriately. Therefore, rockfall ditches are occasionally not capable of preventing rockfalls. Within the scope of this study, the performance of a 2m-deep and 1 km-long rockfall ditch excavated at the upper elevation of touristic Akköy (Ürgüp) settlement in 2012in order to prevent the entrance of falling rocks to the residential area was evaluated on the basis of 3-dimensionalrockfall analyses. According to the rockfall risk classification, the settlement is under moderate rockfall risk. Thedigital surface model used in 3-dimensional rockfall analyses was generated by point cloud data obtained fromphotogrammetric images taken by unmanned aerial vehicle. During field observations, it was determined that thedimension of the previously fallen ignimbrite blocks could reach up to 2 m. On the other hand, the high persistencyof discontinuities in the source zone indicates that the dimensions of the potential rockfall blocks may be large. As aresult of the 3-dimensional rockfall analyses carried out in RocPro3D software, it was defined that the falling blocksare generally caught by the ditch excavated between the source zone and the settlement, but in some sections of theditch those blocks may continue to roll over the rockfall ditch. Eventually, Akköy settlement is still partially underthe danger of rockfalls. If the rockfall ditch is not periodically cleaned in the course of time, the extent of danger willenlarge with the decrease in the capacity of the trench.

  • Rockfall

  • ditch

  • 3-dimension

  • performance

  • Ürgüp

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  • Saroglou, H., Marinos, V., Marinos, P., Tsiambaos, G., 2012. Rockfall hazard and risk assessment: an example from a high promontory at the historical site of Monemvasia, Greece. Natural Hazards Earth System Sciences, 12, 1823-1836.

  • Sarro, R., Riquelme, A., García-Davalillo, J.C., Mateos, R.M., Tomás, R., Pastor, J.L., Cano, M., Herrera, G., 2018. Rockfall simulation based on UAV photogrammetry data obtained during an emergency declaration: application at a cultural heritage sit

  • Topal, T., Akin, M. K., Ozden, A.U., 2007. Assessment of rockfall hazard around Afyon Castle. Environmental Geology, 53(1):191–200.

  • Topal, T., Akın, M.K., Akın, M., 2012. Rockfall hazard analysis for an historical Castle in Kastamonu (Turkey). Natural Hazards, Vol. 62: 255–274.

  • Tunusluoğlu, M.C., Zorlu, K., 2009. Rockfall hazard assessment in a cultural and natural heritage (Ortahisar Castle, Cappadocia, Turkey). Environmental Geology, 56(5):963–972.

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  • Varnes, D. J., 1978. Slope movement types and processes, In: R. L. Schuster and R. J. Krizek, Eds., Landslides, Analysis and Control, National Academy of Sciences, pp. 11-33.

  • Volkwein, A., Schellenberg, K., Labiouse, V., Agliardi, F., Berger, F., Bourrier, F., Dorren, L. K. A., Gerber, W., Jaboyedoff, M.,2011. Rockfall characterization and structural protection-a review. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 11, 2617

  • Wyllie, D.C., 2015. Rock Fall Engineering. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. 270 pp.

  • Zorlu, K., Tunusluoglu, M.C., Gorum, T., Nefeslioglu, H.A., Yalcin, A., Turer, D., Gokceoglu, C., 2011. Landform effect on rockfall and hazard mapping in Cappadocia (Turkey). Environmental Earth Sciences. 62, 8, 1685-1693.

  • Akın, M , Dinçer, İ , Orhan, A , Ok, A , Akin, M , Topal, T . (2019). Kaya Tutma Hendek Performansının 3-Boyutlu Kaya Düşme Analizleriyle Değerlendirilmesi: Akköy (Ürgüp) Örneği . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 43 (2) , 211-232 . DOI: 10.24232/jmd.65

  • Akın, M , Dinçer, İ , Orhan, A , Ok, A , Akin, M , Topal, T . Kaya Tutma Hendek Performansının 3-Boyutlu Kaya Düşme Analizleriyle Değerlendirilmesi: Akköy (Ürgüp) Örneği. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 43 (2019 ): 211-232

  • Differences Between Rock Modules: Case Studies From Deriner/Artvin and Ermenek/Karaman Dams
    Ali Kayabaşi
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    ABSTRACT: Elasticity modulus and deformation modulus are used an input parameter in arch and concrete dam projects. Inaddition, these modules are used for the classification of intact rock and rock masses. Although the deformation andelasticity modulus are different from each other, they are often confused in practice. These modules are determinedby in-situ tests, laboratory tests and geophysical methods. In this study, the deformation and elasticity modulusdetermined by dilatometer tests and plate loading tests at Deriner /Artvin and Ermenek /Karaman dam sites andmodules obtained by laboratory test results were correlated. The module correlations in literature were compiledas well. Rock mass elasticity modulus (ED) of dilatometer test, rock mass deformation modulus (DD) of dilatometertest, rock mass elasticity modulus (EH) of plate loading test, rock mass deformation modulus (DH) of plate loadingtest, intact rock static elasticity modulus (ELSD) of laboratory tests, intact rock dynamic elasticity modulus (ELD)of laboratory tests are correlated with regression analysis. Empirical equations obtained by regression analysisperformed between rock modulus revealed high determination coefficient. The empirical equations proposed inthis study are developed with a number of limited number of data and every rock mass has specific properties. Theequations determined in this study should not be used for other projects or a cross check should be performed.

  • Deformation Modulus

  • Elasticity Modulus

  • Deriner Dam

  • Ermenek Dam

  • In-situ Test

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  • ASTM D2845, 2008. Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Pulse Velocities and Ultrasonic Elastic Constants of Rock (Withdrawn 2017), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA,

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  • Gue´guen, Y., Palciauskas, V., 1994. Introduction to the physics of rocks. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, p 294.

  • Deere, D.U., Miller, R.P., 1966. “Engineering Classification And Index Properties For Intact Rock”, Tech.Rept. No AFWL-65-116, Air Force Base, New Mexico.

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  • Galera, M.J., Alvarez, M., Bieniawski, Z.T., 2005. Evaluation of the deformation modulus of rock masses: comparison of the pressuremeter and dilatometer tests with RMR prediction. ISP5- PRESSIO International Symposium.

  • Hoek, E., Diederichs, M.S., 2006. Empirical estimation of rock mass modulus. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, 43. 203-215.

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  • Kaya, A., Kayabaşı A., 1998. Ermenek HES Santral Yeri Dilatometre Deney Sonuç raporu. Jeoloji ve Sondaj Dairesi Başkanlığı, Kaya ve Zemin Mekaniği Şubesi Müdürlüğü, EİEİ Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara.

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  • Martinez-Martinez, J., Benavente, D., Garci´a-delCura, M.A., 2012. Comparison of the static and dynamic elastic modulus in carbonate rocks. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 71: 263-268.

  • Munır, K., 2006. Development of correlation between rock classification system and modulus of deformation. PhD Thesis-Civil-02, Department of Civil Engineering University of Engineering And Technology, Lahore-PAKISTAN.

  • Narin, O., Ceylan, O., Uysal, B., 1986. Aşşağı Çoruh Havzası Deriner Baraj Yeri Hidrolik Kriko Yükleme Deneyleri Elastisite Raporu. EİEİ Genel Müdürlüğü, Yayın No:86-65. Ankara.

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  • Kayabaşı, A . (2019). Kaya Modülleri Arasında Farklılıklar: Deriner/Artvin ve Ermenek/Karaman Barajlarından Örnek Çalışmalar . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 43 (2) , 233-258 . DOI: 10.24232/jmd.655049

  • Kayabaşı, A . Kaya Modülleri Arasında Farklılıklar: Deriner/Artvin ve Ermenek/Karaman Barajlarından Örnek Çalışmalar. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 43 (2019 ): 233-258

  • The Effect of Composition and Textural Properties of Basaltic Rocks on Their Mechaıical Behaviour
    Sinem Aksoy Atiye Tuğrul Selman Er Murat Yilmaz
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    ABSTRACT: Basalts are common in our country and basalts are employed for different purposes. Basalts which have high durability and resistance are preferred in engineering projects. Chemical, mineralogical, petrographic and physicomechanical properties of basalts should be well- known to increase their usage areas. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between the structure and physico-mechanical properties of stones. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different chemical, mineralogical and petrographic properties on the physico-mechanical behavior of basaltic rocks. In general, basalt stones were collected from the Marmara Region and its surroundings. Then, chemical, mineralogical and petrographic properties of the samples were determined. In the next stage, physico-mechanical properties were determined as a result of laboratory studies. Basalts were divided in to two groups according to their matrix characteristics, mineralogical composition and phenocrystalline dimensions according to test results. The first group of basalts showed high strength with high olivine content. The second group of basalts are including high rate phenocrystalline minerals, not including olivine but including high volcanic glass. These basalts give lower strength than the first group

  • Basalt

  • Mineralog

  • Textural Properties

  • Pyhsico-Mechanic

  • Adelinet, M., Fortin, J., Schubnel, A., Guéguen, Y., 2013. Deformation modes in an Icelandic basalt: From brittle failure to localized deformation bands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 255, 15–25.

  • Anovitz, L.M., Cole, D.R., 2015. Characterization and analysis of porosity and pore structures. Rev Mineral Geochemistry, 80, 61–164

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  • Heap, M.J., 2009. The evolution of elastic moduli with increasing crack damage during cyclic gerilimsing of a basalt from Mt. Etna volcano. Tectonophysics, 471 (1–2), 153–160.

  • ISRM, 2007. The ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring, Springer, 628p

  • Korkanç, M., Solak, B., 2016. Estimation of engineering properties of selected tuffs by using grain/matrix ratio. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 120, August 2016, pages 160- 172.

  • Le Bas, M.J., Le Maitre, R.W., Streckeisen, A., Zanettin, B., 1986. A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on total alkali-silica diagram. Journal of Petrology, 27, 745-750.

  • Palchik, V., Hatzor, Y. H., 2004. The influence of porosity on tensile and compressive strength of chalks, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 37(4), 331-341.

  • Palchik, V., 2013. Is there link between the type of the volumetric strain curve and elastic constants, porosity, stress and strain characteristics. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 46(2), 315- 326.

  • Tuğrul A., Gürpınar, O., 1997. Proposed Weathering Classification for Basalts and Their Engineering Properties. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, 55, 61-71.

  • Tuğrul A., Gürpınar, O., 1997. Proposed Weathering Classification for Basalts and Their Engineering Properties. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, 55, 61-71.

  • Ündül, Ö., Amann, F., Aysal, N., Plötze, M., 2015. Micro - textural effects on crack initiation and crack propagation of andesitic rocks. Engineering Geology, 1-9.

  • Erişiş, S , Tuğrul, A , Er, S , Yılmaz, M . (2019). Bazaltik Kayaların Bileşim ve Dokusal Özelliklerinin Mekanik Davranışlarına Etkisi . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 43 (2) , 259-278 . DOI: 10.24232/jmd.655348

  • Erişiş, S , Tuğrul, A , Er, S , Yılmaz, M . Bazaltik Kayaların Bileşim ve Dokusal Özelliklerinin Mekanik Davranışlarına Etkisi. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 43 (2019 ): 259-278

  • Hydrogeochemistry and Application Characteristics of İscehisar (Afyonkarahisar) Thermal and Mineral Waters
    Can Başaran Ahmet Yildiz Merve Şenel
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, hydrogeochemical and application characteristics of one thermal water, one mineral water and 5cold water samples in Iscehisar (Afyonkarahisar) were investigated. The schists of the Paleozoic Afyon metamorphicsform the basement rock in the study area. Iscehisar marbles are the reservoir rock of the geothermal system. Theimpermeable levels of the Neogene units form the cover rock. Meteoric waters percolate to the reservoir rocks, theyare heated at depth by geothermic gradient and then ascend to the surface as thermal waters and/or ascend to thesurface as cold mineral waters due to heat lost causing longer flow paths. The permeable levels of the Neogene rocksare the aquifer rocks of the cold waters. According to the results of the analysis; the thermal water is Na-Ca-HCO3type, the mineral water is Na-HCO3 type and the cold water samples are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 types. Itis thought that the Mg and Na ions in the cold waters are caused by the metamorphic-volcanic rocks in which theyinteract. According to the silica geothermometers, the reservoir temperatures of thermal and mineral waters varybetween 69-119°C and 46-82°C, respectively. All the ion concentrations except those of As in the cold water samples are compatible with the human consumption limits of ITASHY (2013). The ions concentrations of mineral watersample, except that of Cr, are compatible with the natural mineral water limits of DMSY (2004)

  • Iscehisar

  • Afyonkarahisar

  • Geothermal

  • Mineral Water

  • Hydrogeochemistry

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  • Fournier, R.O., 1990. The interpretation of Na-KMg relations in geothermal waters. Geothermal Resource Council Transections, 14, 1421-1425.

  • Fournier, R.O., Truesdell, A.H., 1973. An Empirical Na-K-Ca Geothermometer for Natural Waters. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 37, 1255-1275.

  • Giggenbach, W. F., 1988. Geothermal Solute Equilibria. Derivation of Na-K-Mg-Ca Geoindicators. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, 2749-2765.

  • Giggenbach, W.F., Goguel, R.L., 1989. Collection and Analysis of Geothermal and Volcanic Water and Gas Discharges. Report No. CD 2401. Chemistry Division, DSIR, Petone, New Zealand.

  • Göncüoğlu, M.C., Turhan, N., Şentürk, K., Uysal, Ş., Özcan, A., Işık, A., 1996. Orta Sakarya’da Nallıhan-Sarıcakaya Arasındaki Yapısal Birliklerin Jeolojik Özellikleri, MTA Rap. No. 10094, (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Gürsoy, H., Piper, J.D.A., Tatar, O., 2003. Neotectonic deformation in the western sector of tectonic escape in Anatolia: palaeomagnetic study of the Afyon region, central Turkey. Tectonophysics, 374, 57-79.

  • Harder, H., 1970. Boron content of sediments as a tool in facies analysis. Sedimentary Geology, 4, l53- 175.

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  • İTASHY., 2013. İnsani tüketim amaçli sular hakkinda yönetmelikte değişiklik yapılmasına dair yönetmelik, Resmi Gazete, sayı: 28580.

  • Karingithi, C.W., 2009. Chemical Geothermometers for Geothermal Exploration, Short Course IV on Exploration for Geothermal Resources, 1-22.

  • Keren, R., Mezuman, V., 1987. Boron adsorption by clay minerals using a phenomenological equation, Clays and Clay Minerals, 29, 198–204

  • Ketin, İ., 1996. Anadolu’nun Tektonik Birlikleri, MTA Dergisi, 66, 20-34, Ankara.

  • Kibici, Y., Yıldız, A., Bağcı, M., 2001. Afyon kuzeyinin jeolojisi, mermer potansiyelinin araştırılması, Türkiye III. Mermer Sempozyumu, MERSEM 2001, 73-84, Afyonkarahisar.

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  • Palmer, M. R., Spivack, A.J., Edmond, M., 1987. Temperature and pH controls over isotopic fractionation during adsorption of boron on marine clays. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51, 2319–2323.

  • Piper, A.M., 1944. A Graphic Procedure in the Geochemical interpretation of Water Analysis, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 25, 914-23.

  • Schoeller, H., 1955. Geochemie Des Eaux Souterraines, Revue De L’institute Francois Du Petrole, 10, 230-44.

  • Seyfried, W. E., Janecky, D.R., Mottl, M.J., 1984. Alteration of the oceanic crust: Implications for geochemical cycles of lithium and boron. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48, 557- 569.

  • Tolluoğlu, Ü.A., Erkan, Y., Yavaş, F., 1997. Afyon metasedimenter grubunun Mesozoyik öncesi metamorfik evrimi. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni, 40- 2, 1-17.

  • Truesdell, A. H., 1976. Summary of Section III Geochemical Techniques in Exploration. In Proceedings, Second United Nations Symposium on the Development and Use of Geothermal Resources, San Francisco, CA, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1, 13-39, W

  • Başaran, C , Yıldız, A , Cigerci, M . (2019). İscehisar (Afyonkarahisar) Termal ve Mineralli Sularının Hidrojeokimyası ve Kullanım Özellikleri . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 43 (2) , 279-291 . DOI: 10.24232/jmd.655363

  • Başaran, C , Yıldız, A , Cigerci, M . İscehisar (Afyonkarahisar) Termal ve Mineralli Sularının Hidrojeokimyası ve Kullanım Özellikleri. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 43 (2019 ): 279-291

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