Jeoloji Münendisliği Dergisi
Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

2022 HAZİRAN Cilt 46 Sayı 1
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Changes in Settlement Troughs Induced by Subway Tunnel Excavations in Weak Geological Environments in Istanbul
Candaş Topal Yilmaz Mahmutoğlu
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Abstract: Due to increasing urban populations, many modern cities attempt to solve problems associated with theincreasing demand for public transportation by constructing these systems underground. To create new metro lines,multiple underground excavations must be carried out in several locations; these are often close to each otherin shallow and weak geological environments due to geometric limitations as well as access-related restrictions.Settlement troughs can occur as a result of these excavations, potentially causing serious damage to the structureswithin the settling area. This study evaluated the data collected by monitoring the extent of surface deformationduring the excavation process in four different locations on the Kirazlı-Olimpiyat-Başakşehir Metro Line as wellas two different locations on the Ataköy-İkitelli Metro Line; all of these sites were located on the European side ofIstanbul. The geometry of the surface settlement troughs that formed due to these tunnel excavations was examined;a total of 12 sections were investigated in this study. An analysis of the monitoring data reveals that, in similar geological environments, successively excavated tunnels with the same geometry and tunnelling methods can disturbthe geological environment through which the tunnels are constructed; in particular, if the second tunnel passesthrough the same section, this results in the formation of an increasing and asynchronous surface settlement trough.This result indicates that the material parameter (K), which affects the size of the settlement trough formed inscenarios with twin subway tunnels with close axes and that are excavated at shallow depths, has different valuesat the wings of the settlement trough that forms after the tunnels have been excavated, and that this change in Kinfluences the shape of the surface settlement trough. This study suggests that predicting any changes in K, whichis dependent on the characteristics of the surrounding rock, is important in order to mitigate any potential risks,especially at the design stage of any project that requires the excavation of multiple tunnels at shallow depths and inweak geological environments.

  • Twin Tunnel

  • Istanbul Metro

  • Geotechnical Monitoring

  • Settlement Trough

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  • Demir, S., 2018. İstanbul Metrosu Kirazlı-İkitelli Arasında İkiz Tünel Kazılarına Bağlı Oluşan Yüzey Oturmalarının Değerlendirilmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İTÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul, Türkiye.

  • Ercelebi, S. G., Copur, H., Ocak, I., 2011. Surface settlement predictions for Istanbul Metro tunnels excavated by EPB-TBM. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62(2). 010-0530-6.

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  • Mahmutoğlu, Y., 2011. Surface subsidence induced by twin subway tunneling in soft ground conditions in Istanbul. Bulletin of Engineering Geological Environment, 70, 115–131, DOI 10.1007/ s10064-010-0289-8.

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  • Topal, C., Mahmutoğlu, Y., 2021. Assessment of surface settlement induced by tunnel excavations for the Esenler–Başakşehir (Istanbul, Turkey) Subway Line. Environmental Earth Sciences, 80(5), 1–16, 021-09509-6.

  • Topal, C., 2021. Prediction of the Surface Deformations Induced By Shallow and Multiple Underground Excavations (Istanbul Subway) In Weak Geological Environments. Phd Thesis (in Turkish), Istanbul Technical University, Graduate School, Istanbul, Turkey

  • Wang, Z., Yao, W., Cai, Y., Xu, B., Fu, Y., Wei, G., 2018. Analysis of ground surface settlement induced by the construction of a large diameter shallow-buried twin-tunnel in soft ground Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology.

  • Topal, C. & Mahmutoglu, Y. (2022). İstanbul’da Zayıf Jeolojik Ortamlarda Metro Tüneli Kazılarının Neden Olduğu Oturma Teknesindeki Değişimler . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 46 (1) , 1-16 . Retrieved from

  • Topal, C. , Mahmutoglu, Y. `İstanbul’da Zayıf Jeolojik Ortamlarda Metro Tüneli Kazılarının Neden Olduğu Oturma Teknesindeki Değişimler` . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 46 (2022 ): 1-16

  • Investigation of Çevreli Village (Mersin) Landslide Affecting the Energy Transmission Line and Evaluation of Stabilization Methods
    Ahmet Orhan
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    Abstract: The aim of the study is to examine the landslide affecting the electricity pole of Kadıncık II HEPP located inÇevreli Village of Tarsus District of Mersin Province ,and to perform a comparative analysis of different stabilizationmethods. While the Güvenç formation with claystone, claystone-siltstone ,and marl intercalations is observed in thestudy area, mudstone-claystone intercalated conglomerate, pebbly sandstone ,and coarse-grained sandstone levelsare observed in the Kuzgun formation at the upper elevations. The instability problem in the mentioned location hasthe potential to expand in a large landslide that encompasses the energy transmission line over time. Within thescope of this study, the existing landslide was examined, ,and its failure mechanism was revealed, ,and alternativestabilization methods were developed to prevent possible instabilities that would affect the electricity pole. In thiscontext, drilling studies for engineering geology were carried out in the vicinity of the electricity pole in the studyarea ,and disturbed ,and undisturbed samples were taken for laboratory analysis. On the other hand, shear strengthparameters of the failed material were determined by means of back-analyses. Thus, the current situation ,and the  performance of the stabilization suggestions under saturated ,and/ dynamic conditions were evaluated. In order toprevent possible failures, alternatives of backfill ,and bored pile application were investigated by limit equilibriumanalysis. As a result of the analyses, it has been revealed that the stabilization methods evaluated can providestability in different conditions ,and that the high-cost electricity pole # 2 will not be at risk. 

  • Back-Analysis

  • Landslide

  • Stabilization Suggestions

  • Claystone

  • Tarsus

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  • Noble, H.L., 1973. Residual Strength and landslides in clay and shale. JSMFED, ASCE Vol: 99 No: SM9. Paper 10023, Semptember, p: 705-719.

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  • Orhan, A. Enerji Nakil Hattını Etkileyen Çevreli Köyü (Mersin) Heyelanının İncelenmesi ve İyileştirme Yöntemlerinin Değerlendirilmesi`. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 46 (2022 ): 17-40

  • Shallow Crustal Structure of Lake Van and Its Surroundings with WGM2012 Bouguer Gravity Data
    Mustafa Ali Elmas
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    Abstract: Using the Bouguer gravity data obtained from the World Gravity Map (WGM2012), the shallow crustalstructure of Van Lake and its vicinity has been studied in this study. In this context, it is aimed to investigate thelateral boundaries of the geological units of the region by applying total horizontal derivative and tilt angle methodsto the vertical derivative values of the gravity data. The maximum amplitude values of the total horizontal derivativeand zero amplitude values of the tilt angle were used to reveal the horizontal boundaries. In addition to the similaritybetween the results of this study and the results of previous studies, new discontinuity boundaries were determined.In addition, the average depths of the soft/hard sediments, basement and Conrad topographies were calculated withthe amplitude spectrum in the study area. In addition, with the inverse solution, the basement topography of theregion was calculated and mapped. As a result of the amplitude spectrum calculation, the average depths of soft/hardsediment, basement and Conrad interfaces were determined as 3.1 km, 6.2 km and 14.4 km, respectively. In additionto the determination of the mass boundaries that present a density difference, it has been calculated that the depthvalues of the basement topography vary between 5.6 and 6.7 km with the inverse solution.

  • Total Horizontal Derivative

  • Tilt Angle

  • Van Lake

  • First Vertical Derivative

  • Structural Discontinuity

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  • Özvan, A., Şengül, M.A., Tapan, M., 2008. Van Gölü havzası neojen çökellerinin jeoteknik özelliklerine bir bakış: Erciş Yerleşkesi, Çukurova Üniversitesi Yerbilimleri Dergisi (Geosound), 52, 297-310.

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  • Elmas, A. (2022). Van Gölü ve civarının sığ kabuk yapısının WGM2012 Bouguer gravite verileriyle incelenmesi . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi , 46 (1) , 41-50 . Retrieved from

  • Elmas, A. `Van Gölü ve civarının sığ kabuk yapısının WGM2012 Bouguer gravite verileriyle incelenmesi` . Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi 46 (2022 ): 41-50

  • The Potential of Badlands in Turkey as Geosites
    Yildiz Güney
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    Abstract: Badlands are areas that cannot be used for agricultural and animal husbandry purposes. It is even impossibleto walk on some parts of them. However, they can be used for tourism and educational purposes. In the world,there are badlands used for tourism and educational purposes and visited by thousands of people every year. Itis also possible to see badlands, which cover a large area, almost in any region of Turkey. Turkey has badlandsthat can compete with other badlands in the world in terms of geosite potential. Indeed, certain badlands suchas Rhododendron Ridge, Küpyar Badland, Nallıhan Badland, Devil City Badland, Rainbow Hills (Erzurum) andRainbow Hills (Iğdır) have succeeded in attracting people’s attention with their interesting features. However, noholistic assessment has been carried out regarding the geosite potential of the badlands in Turkey. The main purposeof this research is to determine the educational and touristic value of certain badlands in Turkey as a geosite and tocompare these areas with their examples in the world. Accordingly, quantitative geosite assessment methods wereused in the research. The results of the assessment revealed that Nallıhan Badland, which is one of the badlandssubjected to assessment in the research, is the badland that has the highest geosite potential of Turkey with its main (educational and scientific) and additional (touristic and functional) values. Also, this area has high geotouristicvalue among other examples in the world. It was concluded that Turkey, which has important badlands in terms ofgeosite potential, does not evaluate these badlands for tourism and especially educational purposes. 

  • Anatolia

  • Geoheritage

  • Geosite

  • Geotourism

  • Badlands

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