Jeoloji Münendisliği Dergisi
Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

1993 KASIM Cilt 17 sayı 2
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Geology and Genesis of Fluorite Deposit of Ovacık (Tavşanh-Kütahya)
İsmet Özgenç
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ABSTRACT: Epi-mesotherma! fluorite mineralization of Tertiary age occurs in allochton limestone of Late Cretaceous age. The mineralization is controlled by WNW-ESE trending young faults and related shears and extension fractures General trends of young faults are parallel to the Gediz - Simav graben system. Some dissolution cavities occured mainly m shears. Fluorite mineralization occurs in shears and dissolution cavities. Extension fractures are represented by small barite veins. Depositional texture is open space filling and represented by asymmetric banded texture in shears and symmetric banded texture in dissolution cavities. Fluorite is major ore mineral in the deposit. Calcite is major gangue mineral Minor gangue minerals are barite and uartz, No sulfide mineralization have been observed in the deposit. The host rock is limestone, Dolomitizaiton of wall rock is common and locally intense where fluorite mineralization is dominant. Two paragenetic stages have been distinguished. Mesothermal stage: Purple fluorite - quartz-green fluorite - barite, Epithermal stage: Brown calcite - pink fluorite - white calcite, Microthermometric measurements on nearly 100 two phase (1+v), phase (1) pyrimary jnclusions, yielded mean homogenization temperature of 270 C° for purple fluorite, 254 C* for quartz, 243 tf for green fluorite, 219 Cs for barite, 206 C° for brown calcite, 178 C* for pink fluorite and 160 C° for white calcite. The salinity of fluorite ranges from % 7- 84 equ iv ,wt, of NaCl, The mean homogenization temperature of monomineralic barite veins range between 219-24 fC: The REE content of fluorites are slightly variable, rangnig from from 0,11 to 5,20 ppm, Ce/Yb ratios reflect the dominant trend of light REE enrichment. The puiple fluorite harf a lower Tb^ia ratio which is indicative for earlier crystallization. Relatively higher Tb/La ratios of green and pink fluorite indicate a sequential crystallization after purple fluorite. Chondrite normalized plots an REE ratios reveal persistent negative Ce anomalies indicating high oxygen fugacities at the source area Positive Eu anomaly of purple fluorite indicates the release of Eu+2 during dolomitization limestone and oxidation to Eu+3 at deposition site and subsequent incorporation in the puiple fluorite. Negative Eu anomalies of green and pink fluorite indicate the presence of divalent Eu in the hydrothermal fluids, The geologic, geochemical and fluid inclusion data support deposition in Tertiary hydrothermal system which is characterized by sulfide mineralization and too many thermal springs around the fluorite deposit. The most likely depositional mechanism is believed to be an increase in the pH of the ore bearing fluids upon interaction with limestone which resulted in the fluorite deposition.

  • Ovacık(Tavşanlı-Kütahya)

  • Flouroit Bed

  • Mineralization Zon

  • Limestones

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  • The investigation of İsparta ignimhrites as a tras
    Mustafa Kuşçu Gülay Selçuk
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    ABSTRACT: Ignimbrite (trass) occurs quite spreadly with in the pyroclasüc deposite of Pliocene age in the southern and western of İsparta. The level of trass depends on a tachiandesite volcanism and it`s thickness which changes between 20-150 m, Trass contains the matrix of glass which composed of feldspar (sanidine, albite), pyroxsene, amfibole, biotite and opac minerals. In addition to various rock pieces, locally carbonized plant remains are other components of the  trass level. The most important feature of the Dereboğazı tass which is used as supplement material in cement production has very high puzolanic activity degree. This value is 103 kgf/cm3 which is high twice of standart value, The Blaine value which is given as 3000 cm/gr at standarts for studies specimens is found 7630 cm/gr, Specific gravity of trass is 2,49 gr/ cm3 and glasslike phase is 40 %. The total amount of SiO2 + A12O3 + Fe2O3 which are taking place at the content of sample trass is between 74-84 %, however MgO, 0,27-0.76 %, SO3, 0,0-0,30 %, The values are very suitable to standart values. In this study we tried to explain; width wide distribution and reserve of the Dereboğazı Trass which is very useful and economic as supplementary material in cement production with it`s all specialities

  • Isparta Region

  • İgnimbirit

  • Reserve

  • Tras Feldispat

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  • Manganese Mineralizations in Turkey: Processes of Formation and Types
    Hüseyin Öztürk
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    ABSTRACT: Mangenese mineralizations in Turkey are divided into four main groups according to their age spans,hostjocks, processes of formation and mineralogical-chemical-textural features, The frist is hydrothermal and rare hydrogenetic type manganese mineralization which are associated with chiefly radiolarian chert series. These deposits that havve high Mn-Si and low Al-Fe content occur as lenses and small thin beds in the epiophiolitic sediments of Paleotethyan, Karakaya, North Anatolian (Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan) and South Anatolian suture belts. These mineralizations are mainly small but most widley distributed group of manganese ores, CayMi is the most distinctive deposit of a chert hosted type. The second is black shale hosted manganese mineralizations that take place in the black shale horizon within the carbonates of Lower Cretaceous age in Western Taurides. These deposits are represented by relatively large reservs and are composed of rhodoçchrosite and its oxidizing products. Most typical deposits of the black shale hosted type are located in Ulukent-Denizli and its southern region, Fe contents of these deposits are higher than chert hosted deposits, whereas Al and Si are low. The third is volcanic arc hosted ores along the Black Sea coast occur in diffeternt types of metasomatic, hydro» thermal and stratabaund settings. Rock associations include dacitic tuff, reddish limestone, marl and hemipelagic claystone alternations ou Upper Cretaceous, The most important deposits of the region are locatad at Ocakli, Topkirazlar, Ebuhemjin and Guce. The Fourth is the post-tectonic sedimentary hosted ores in the Thrace Basin, These deposits are similar to those of the Oligocène Belt that occurs along the west coast of Black Sea, which includes the Chiatura, Nikopol, Varna deposits. Inverselyy gradad pisolitic ore was formed by early diagenetic processes during transgression regression cycles

  • Türkiye

  • Manganez Bearings

  • Formation and Types

  • Mineralogy

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  • Mehmet Altunsoy Orhan Özçelik
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  • Organic Facies

  • Stratigrafi

  • Geochemistry

  • Oil

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  • İlker Şengüler
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  • Engineering Geology

  • Map

  • geological Factors

  • Earthquake

  • Volcanism

  • Landslide

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  • Ahmet Kartalkanat
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  • Constitution

  • Natural Wealth

  • Mines

  • Resources

  • Aydin Özsan
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  • Avustralya

  • Arid Regions

  • Geological Location

  • Mediterranean

  • Tropical

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  • Haydar İlker
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  • Large-Scale Sudden Landslides

  • Geological Features

  • Rock Mass Structure

  • İnstability

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  • İsmail Bilgin
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  • Volcanic Facies

  • Sedimentary Volcano

  • Lava

  • Sedimentary Basin

  • Mesude Aydan
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  • Nuran Ünsal Tünay
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  • Manisa Teacher`s House

  • Slaked Limestone

  • Soil Improvement

  • Yılmaz, H.R. (1990) Kohezyonlu bir zeminin İmzı parametrelerinin kireç stabilizasyonu ile değişimi üzerine bir araştırma D.E.Ü. Müh, Mim, Fak, İnş, Müh. Bölümü Bornova/İzmir

  • % Arba, (1959) Construction Manual on lime stabilization

  • Prandil, H. (1981) Alteration of Soil parameters by stabilization With lime Aust,

  • Glare, K.E, Cruchley, A,E, (1957) Laboratory experiments in the stabilization of clays With hidmted lime Geotechnique,

  • Nuran Ünsal Tünay
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  • Drilling and Land

  • Standard Penetration Tests

  • Formation

  • Alluvium

  • Çakıcı,S; Hamarat,Ş; Kavak,S; (1992): Bayındırlık ve İskan Bakanlığı Yapı İşleri Genel Müdürlüğünce Manisa`da yapılacak olan Manisa Öğretmen Evi zemin etüd raporu

  • Erguvanlı, K, (Ï975): Mühendislik Jeolojisi; tTÜ Yayınları

  • Yılmaz, R. (1990): Kohezyonlu bir zeminin bazı parametihlerinin kireç stabüizasyonu ile değişimi üzerine bir araştırma11 D.E.Ü Müh. Mim.Fak,îns,Muh, Bölümü, Bomova-îzmir,

  • Arba, (1959) construction Manual on lime Stabilization,

  • Geology and Economy of Platinum-group Metalls und Minerals
    Afet Tuncay Mustafa Kuşçu
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    ABSTRACT: In the world, platinum-group metalls (Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Ru, Rh) are found as a primary in the magmatic liquation, early magmatic and late magmatic deposits, They are present as secondary in the placer deposits. As Pt, Ir, Dsthree of them are more dominant in basic rocks, however Pd and Pt sulfure are more abundant in ultrabasic rocks, Distrubition of platinum-group metalls in stratiform and podiform chromite deposits of late magmatic stage show differences. Although Cr2O3 are present more in podiform deposits, platinum-group metalls less in the same deposits, but stratiform deposits show opposite state.All platinum-group metalls have been produved in a few countries (Canada, S. Africa, Russia, Colombia) as a 98 percent of the world production. Platinum-group metalls (Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Ru, Rh) are present less in chromite deposits ofTurkey and they are not economic,

  • Platin

  • Metals and Minerals

  • Geology

  • Economy

  • İgneous

  • Anıl, M,, Yaşar, E., 1989, Kızıldağ (Hatay) OfiyoUtine Bağlı Rromit yataklarında Görülen Dönüşüm ve Bazı Platin Grubu Mineralleri, Yerbilimcinin Sesi, sayı 17, s. 49-58, Adana.

  • Çağatay, Â,? 1979, Yamaç ve Akarsu Plaserlerine Dünya ve Türkiye`den Bazı Örnekler, Yer Yuvan ve İnsan, Sayı 4, Cilt 4, S. 16, Ankara

  • Economou M., 1985, Platinum Group Elements in Chromiteand Sulphide Ores Withinthe Ultramafic Zone of Some Greek Ophiolite Complexes: Metallogeny of Basic and Ultmbasic Rocks Proa, 441- 452, Edinburgh.

  • Gümüş, A,, 1988, Maden Jeololisi Jeolojik Prospeksi« yon ve Rezerv Hesaplan Kitabı, İzmir,

  • Legendre, O., Auge, T„ 1985, Mineralogy of Platinum Group Mineral Inclusions in Chromitites from Different Ophiolitic Complexes: Metallogeny of Basic and Ultrabasic Rocks Fro., 441-452, Edinburgh

  • Macdonald, A.J., 1988, The Platinum Group Element Deposits: Classification and Genesis, Ore Deposit Model,?, 117-131.

  • Page, N.J., Rowe, J.J., and Haffy, I, 1976, Platinum Metals in the Stillwater Complex, Montana: Econ,GeoL, V, 71, P. 13524363,

  • Page, N.ÖJ., Cassard, D, and Haffy, J,f 1982, Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium, Ruthenium and Iridium in Chromitites from the Massif du Sud and Tiebaghi Massif, New Caledonia: Economic Geology 77, P. 1571-1577.

  • Öztunah, ք 1973, Maden Yatakları Oluşumlan ve Değerlendirilmeleri Kitabı, İstanbul

  • Simirnov, V.l., Ginzburg, A.I., Grigoriev, V.M., Yakovlev, G.F., 1983/Studies of Mineral deposits. Mosvcow.

  • TaMngton, R.W., Waikison, D.H., 1989, Whole Rock Platinum-Group element Trends in Ghromite-Rich Rocks in Ophiolitic and Stratiform Igneous Complexe. Metallogeny of Basic and Ultrabasic Rocks, P. 427-440,

  • Von Grounewaldt, G., 1977, The Mineral Resources of the Bushweld Complex: Minerals Sei, Eng., V. 9, P. 83=95,

  • Yaman, S„ 1991, Mersin Ofiyoliti Ultramafïk Zon Krom Yataklarında Platin Grubu Element Dağılımı. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı Bülteni-6, S, 253- 261, Ankara,

  • Faruk Öztürk Erçin Türkel
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  • Underground Storage of Waste

  • İndustrial Waste

  • Mine Waste

  • Chemical Reactions

  • Household Waste

  • Mustafa Yildirim Kutay Uzaydin
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    ABSTRACT: İkitelli Organized Industrial Region is under development at the north of Küçükçekmece lake in the westof Istanbul, It is the second largest investment project in Turkey in recent years after GAP (Southeastern Anatolian Project) and based on the 1991 data, it comprises about 50 light indusüial plant cooperatives with approximately 17 000members. The consuiiction activities at this Industrial Region started prior to the suitability for development studies were earned out. In this paper, the findigs of the geological and geotechnical investigations over an area of approximately20 km2 at ikitelli Organised Industrial Region and the vicinity are presented. The geological base of the investigatedarea consists of alternating layers of siltstone-sandstone and shales of Carboniferous Age, which is known as TrakyaFormation, This formation which is generally called graywacke, is observed to be in a state of solid rock, intermediaterock and weathered rock from base to top, and this observation is verified with laboratory determined mechanical properties. In the region, Eocene aged Kırklareli and Menekşedere formations overlay discordantly the Trakya formation.The Kırklareli formation is represented by harddense limestones, and at the upper levels grades to Menekşedere formation which is represented with sandy clayey limestones interbedded with marl and both formations are observed to formthe steep slopes of the valleys due to their high strength characteristics. These formation are overlaid by Miocene agedÇukurçeşme formation consisting of sands and gravels of transgressive character, Çukurçeşme Formation possessescharacteristics of dense sand-gravel with a weak cohesiveness due to the presence of clay inclusions and bands. AboveÇukurçeşme formation, highly plastic clays of Güngören formation with occasional clayey silty sand lenses irBHCOuntered. This formation which is observed to outcrop in the areas with small slope angles tend to become unstable in excava tion slopes and leads ta earth movements, It is overlain by clayey porous limestones of Bakırköy foımation* All thesegeological units are covered with alluvial deposits. In this investigation, the 1/5000 and 1/1000 scaled geological and engineering geological maps are prepared for the İkitelli Industrial Region and the vicinity, on which all the outcroppingrock-soil formations are identified» and the physicomechanical properties of the geological units encountered are determined with laboratory tests. The thickness» structural location, fault-contact-groundwater relationships, constitutive andtexture characteristics, and strength properties are evaluated in the view of stability and suitability for constructional development considerations. Inclination maps are also prepared and the results of all the field and laboratory geotechnicalinvestigations are utilized to prepare land use suitability maps for the whole region,

  • İkitelli(istanbul)

  • Organized Small İndustrial Zone

  • Suitability For Placement

  • Soil Properties

  • ARIÇ, C (1955), Haliç-Küçükçekmece Gölü Bölgesinin Jeolojisi, İTÜ Maden Fakültesi yayını.

  • ASLANTÂŞ, G. (1989), Sefaköy-tkitelli-Firüzköy (İstanbul) alanının jeolojisi ve Yanmburgaz Kireçtaşımn Jepteknik incelemesi11 , (Diploma Tezi), İstanbul Üniversitesi Müh. Fak, Jeoloji Müh. Bölümü,

  • EROSKAY, S.O.; GÜRPINAR, O., CORUK, Ö. (1987), Ada Çiftliği Yenişehir Arazisinin Mü« hendislUt Jeolojisi ve jeoteknik İncelemesi, İstanbul Üniversitesi Müh, Fak. Proje No: 1376/87

  • KARABULUT, R (1989), İstanbul Beylik düzü Kent Jeolojisi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Üniversitesi Fen Bilim, Enstitüsü Jeoloji Müh., Uygulamalı Jeoloji Programı*

  • KAYA, O. (1971), İstanbul`un Karbonifer Stratigrafisi TJKBüL 14/2,143-201*

  • ÖZAYDW K,; ERGUVÂNLI, A* (1979) Küçükçekmece ve Büyükçekmece Arasındaki Heyelanların Geoteknik Değerlendirilmesi, Zemin Mek. ve Temel Müh. Türk Milli Komitesi Bült, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, Sayfa 234-240,

  • TBZCAN, S.; DIMGUNÖĞLU, T., ACAR, Y.; AYAN, T.v.d, (1977), "İstanbul Yeni İskan yöreleri Geoteknik ve geodinamik Etüdü-GöUerarası Yöm- "Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Deprem Mühendisliği Arastana Enstitüsü, Dahili Rapor No: 77-141,

  • The Terms of Paleontological Classification and Nomenclature
    Kemal Erdoğan
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    ABSTRACT : Definition of the genus and species of the fosil record in sedimentary rocks in terms of taxanomie principles led to the introduction of a number of terms used in systematic paleontology. In this study on attempt is made toclear the confusion arising from the misuse of the terms that are currently used in the paleontological literature and theoral presentations by giving a crital rewiev of the terms used particularly in systematic paleontology. 

  • Palaeontology

  • Classification and Naming Terms

  • Sedimentary Rocks

  • Fossil Types

  • International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 1964, XV* International Congress of Zoology, International Trust for Zoological Nomeclature, 175 s. London.

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  • Mayr, E., et all» 1953, Methods and Principles of Systematic Zoology, Me Graw-HilL Book Company, Inc.

  • Raup, D#5 and Stanley, S*M*, 1971, Principles of Paleontology, 388 s. San Fransisco (Freeman&Co.)

  • Richter, R., 1948, Einführung in die Zoologische Nomenklatiff durch Erläuterung der Internationalen Regeln, 252 p. den çeviri.

  • Ride, W.DJL, et all ÖEd,)., 1985, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 3. r& Intern, Trust., ol. Nomene* University California Press, ley.

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