Jeoloji Münendisliği Dergisi
Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

1990 MAYIS
COVER
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COPYRİHT PAGE
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CONTENTS
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TO OUR READERS
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Engineering geological investigation of the power funnel alignment of the Görmel dam (Ermenek, SE - Konya)
Aydin Özsan
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ABSTRACT : The power tunnel, which will convey the water from the Görmel dam to `the proposed hydroelectric power plant on the left slope of the Erik river,, was designed using data from, studies of the geotechnical properties of the rock units along the tunnel alignment. Data were evaluated using the Geomechanic RMR system and the Q system.. Support systems were recommended for the tunnel. The tunnel will be driven, through flysch faci.es of the Eocene Görmel. formation,, and through the matrix (sandstone, greywacke, spilite, diabase, gabbro., basalt) and limestone blocks of the Upper Cretaceous Çamlıca formasion. These limestone Mocks arc the members (Çetincekalesi, Tahtacı, Kükürce» Azıtepe limestone members) of the Çamlıca formation

  • Görmel Dam

  • Ermenek-Konya

  • Force Tunnel Route

  • Engineering Geology

  • Barton, N.., 1976» Recent Experiences with the Q-Systcm for Tunnel Support: Proceedings,,, Symposium Exploration for Rock Engineering,, ed... Z.T. Bieniawski, A.A., Balkana Press Rotterdam, Vol. 1, pp 107-114..

  • Barton,. N., Lien.,, R.., and Lunde, L, 1974., Engineering Classification of Rock Masses for the Design of Tunnel Support: Rock Mechanics;, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp 183-236,.

  • Bieniawski, Z.T.,, 1973, Engineering Classification, of Jointed Rock Masses, : Transactions of the South African Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 15, No. 12, pp 335-344.,

  • Bieniawski, Z.T.,, 1974,, Geomeehanics Classification of Rock Masses and its Application in Tunneling : Proceedings,,, Third. International Congress Rock Mechanics, International Society for Rock Mechanics,, Denver, Colo., Vol IIA, pp 27-32.

  • Er tunç, A., 1977» Göksu-Ermenek bent yeri olanakları ve .göl alanları, jeoloji ön raporu : E.I.E. yayını, 77-39,, Ankara,.

  • Ûzsan, A..,, 1989, Görme! baraj yeri ve göl alanının (Ermenek, Konya) mühendislik jeolojisi ve kayaların jeoteknik, özellikleri : Türkiye Jeol, Bült., 32/1-2, 9-13.

  • Sümerman, K.» Kıımacıoğlu, A., Bulutlar, E., Taşlıca» A..H., 1975,,, Gülnar-Ilısu (Erik Deresi) Hidroelektrik Projesi ve mühendislik jeolojisi incelemesi: E.I „E. yayını,, 77-1.5, Ankara

  • Economical geology of Belence (Eğirdir - İsparta) black marble deposits
    Mustafa Kuşçu
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    ABSTRACT : Belence Black Marble deposits occur in Paleozoic metamorphic series. The metamorphic series consist of schist, quartzitc, calcschist, metasandstone, metaconglomerate, slate and recristalized limestone (black, marble),. Black marbles present in. two different .areas as Katırtaşı and Hacı Ilyas, Belence vicinity. The Black .marbles are thick-middle bedded and locally massive. Marbles are cut white calsite veins and. veinlets (0.3 mm- 3 cm thick). The black marbles are homogeneous in colour and texture laterally and vertically., Under microskopy, at thin sections of marbles, fine grained (10 - 75 micron) calsite .and microsparitic texture have been observed. The black marbles contain, calcite, quartz and opaque minerals.. Technological experiments showed that marbles can be cut as plate and marble tile (0-9 cm. thick.) and polished well. Phiysico-mechanicai tests have been, done on the Belence marble and their results, have been found as right TS 2513 and TS 1910. Reserve of Belence Black Marble deposite are, as indicated, reserve, total 209 375 000 m.3 (Katırtaşı; 75 000 000 m3 + Hacı Ilyas; 134 37.5 000)

  • Belence(Eğirdir-Isparta)

  • Black Marble Beds

  • Economy

  • Reserve

  • Doğan, Z.,, Arda,, T., Gürçcşmc, L, 1983, Türkiye Mermer Potansiyeli: I. Uluslararası Mermer Simpozyuınu Bildirileri., 102-107.,

  • Dumont, IF.,, 1978, Karacahisar kubbesi içinde (İsparta Bölgesi, Türkiye) yüzlcyen iki tip Paleozoik taban ve bunların Orta Triyastan önce meydana gelen, eski. tip tektonik `hat tarafından ayrılmaları: M.T.A. Dergisi, 90, 74-79.

  • Kuşçu, M., 198.5, Endüstriyel Kay açlar ve Mineraller: Akdeniz Üniv. İsparta. Müh.. Fak. Yayınları, 225 s. (Baskıda)

  • Yüzer, E., Vardar,, M.,, Erdoğan» M., 1983, Marmara. Bölgesi ve Afyon Iscehisar mermerlerinin fizikomekanik özellikleri ve bazı. italyan mermerleri ile karşılaştırılması: 1. Uluslararası Mermer Simpozyumu Bildirileri,, 18-25.

  • TS 1910, Şubat 1977, Kaplama olarak kullanılan, doğal taşlar: Türk Standartları Enstitüsü yayım,, 7 s.

  • TS 2513, Şubat 1977, Doğal yapı taşları: Türk Standartları Enstitüsü Yay un,, 5 s.

  • TS 699, Ocak. 1987, Tabii yapı. taşları, muayene ve deney metodları: Türk Standartları Enstitüsü Yayını,,, 82 s.

  • TS 3517, Aralık 1980, Maden yatakları rrezervlerinin hesaplanmasına ilişkin genel kurallar: Türk Standartları Enstitüsü Yayını» 10 s.

  • Tuncay Ercan Zehra Yegingil Giulio Bigazzi Massimo Öddöne Mehmet Özdoğan
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  • Northwest Anatolian Obsidians

  • Source Specification

  • Radiometry Age Measurement

  • Archaeological Excavations

  • Aslan» F., 1977, Aksaray taş devri fosil insanı ve endüstrisi: Yeryuvarı ve İnsan, 2/4, 5-8

  • Aspinall, A., Feather, S.I.,, Renfrew,, C, 1972,, Neutron, activation analysis of Aegean obsidians: Nature,, 237, 333 - 334,

  • Biro, K.T., 1981, A Karpat-Medencei obszıdıanok vizsgalata :: Különlenyomat az Archeologıaı Ertesitö, 108, 194- 206.

  • Biro,, KT.„ 1984» Distribution of obsidian from, the Carpathian sources on Central European Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites :; Acta Archaeologica Carpathica, 23,. 5-42,.

  • Cann J.R.. ve Renfrew,, C, 1964, The characterization of obsidian and its application to the Mediterranean region : Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 30, 111-133

  • Carın, J.R., Dixpn, J, E ve Renfrew, C, 1969, Obsidian analyses and the obsidian trade: Science in Archaelogy, London.,, Higgs, E.S vc Brothweel, 1. (Ed)..

  • Cauvin, M.C., Balkan, M.,, Besniis, Y. ve Şaroğlu, F.,, 1986» Origine de L`obsidienne de Cafer Höyük. (Turquie); Premiers résultats : Paleorient, 12/2, 89 - 97

  • Dix on, J.E..» Carm, I.E..., vc Renfrew C. a 1968, Obsidian and. the Origins of trade : Scientific American, 218, 80-88

  • Durrani, S.A., Khan, H.A., Taj., M. ve Renfrew; C, 1971. obsidian source identification by fission, track analysis : Nature, 233, 242-245.

  • Ercan, T., Yıldırım T. ve Akbaşlı, A.» 1987, Gelveri (Niğde) - Kızılçin (Nevşehir) arasındaki, volkanizmanın özellikleri : Jeomorfoloji Derg., 15, 27-36.

  • Ercan» T,.,, Yeğingil, Z. ve Bigazzî, G.., 1989, Obsidiyen, tanımı ve özellikleri» Anadolu`daki dağılımı ve Orta Anadolu obsidiyenlerinin jeokimyasal nitelikleri : Jeomorfoloji Derg., 17,, 71 - 83

  • Ercan, T., Akbaşlı, A,., Yıldırım, T., Fişekçi,, A., Selvi, Y., Ölmez, M. ve Can, B., 1990 - a, Acıgöl. (Nevşehir) yöresinin jeolojisi ve Senozoyik yaşlı volkanik kay açların petrolojisi : MTA Derg. (Baskıda),.

  • Ercan, T., Tokel, S., Akbaşlı, A.,, Yıldırım, T.,, Fişekçi, A., Sclvi, Y., Ölmez, M., Can, B., Matsuda, J.I., Ui, T., Fujitani, T..» Notsu. K., 1990-b» Hasandağı-Karacadağ (Orta Anadolu) dolaylarındaki Senozoyik yaşlı volkanizmanın kökeni ve evrimi : Jeomorfoloji Derg,, İS, 39 - 54,.

  • Ekingen, A., 1982» Nevşehir Kalderasında jeofizik prospeksiyon sonuçları : Türkiye jeoloji Kurultayı 1982 Bildiri, özetleri kitabı, 82

  • Fornaseri, M,,, Malpierî, L.,, Palmieri, A`.M..,,, Taddeucci, A., 1977,, Analyses of obsidians from, the Late Chalcolithic levels of Arslantepe (Malatya) : Paleorient,, 3, 231-246,.,

  • Innoccnti, F., Mazzuoli, R., Pasquare, G. w Radie ati, F. ve Villan L., 1975, The Neogene calcalkaline volcanism of Central Anatolia; `Gcochronological data on Kayseri-Niğde arca : Gcol. Mag,., 112/4, 349 - 360.

  • îıınocenti, F., Mazzuoli» R., Pasquare, G., Şerri,, G ve Villari, L,, 1980, Geology of the volcanic area north of Lake Van (Turkey) :: Geol. Rdsek, 69/1, 292 - 323

  • Innoccnti, F, Mazzuoli» R,, Pasquare» G., Radlcaii, F ve Villari» L.„ 1982,, Tertiary and Quaternary volcanism of the Erzurum - Kars area (Eastern Turkey; Geochronological data and geodynamic evolution : Journal of Volcan., Geoth. Res.,, 13, 223 - 240.

  • Keene, A..S., 1981.» Multi - elemen neutron activation, of obsidian samples from Tepe Farukhabad : Memors of the Museum Anthropology» 13,, 438 - 442.

  • Matsuda, J.I,.,. 1988, Geochemie al study of collision volcanism at the plate boundary in Turkey (Comparison with subduction volcanism in Japon.) : Initial raport of Turkey - Japan Volcanologie al Project, 31 - 36, Part I.

  • Matsuda, I.L, 1990» K-Ar age of Turkey volcanics : Initial Report of Turkey-Japan Volcanological Projekt» 63- 68, Part IE.

  • Ogata, A., Nakamnra, K. a Nagao, K., Akirnoto, S., 1.989, K-Ar` age of young volcanic rocks of Türkey : 1989 Annual meeting of the Geochemical Society of Japan» 1C 03.

  • Öngör, T., 1978,,, Nevşehir kalderası : Türkiye 32. Bilimsel ve Teknik Kurultayı Bildiri Özetleri Kitabı, 43

  • Renfrew, C, Cann,, J.R. ve Dixon, I.E., 1965, Obsidian In the Aegean: Annual of the British School, at Athens, 60, 225-247,.

  • Renfrew, C, Dixon, J.E. ve Cann, J.R.., 1966,, Obsidian and early cultural contact in the Near East : Prnoccedings of the Prehistoric Society, 32, 30 - 72.

  • Renfrew,, C, Dixon, I.E., ve Carın, LR., 1968, Further analyses of the Near-Eastern obsidiens : Proceedings of the Prehistoric society 34, 319-331.

  • Taner, M.F., 1977, Etilde géologique et petrographique de la region de Gmneyce-lkîzdere,. située au, sud de Rize (Pontides orientales, Turquie) : Doktora Tezi, Cenevre Univ., İsviçre,,, 180 s., (Yayımlanmamış).

  • Türkecan, A., v.,d,, 1990, Scben-Gerede (Bolu)-GüdülBeypazan (Ankara) ve. Çerkeş-Orta-Kurşunlu (Çankırı)- Güvem (Ankara) yörelerinin jeolojisi ve volkanik kay açların petrolojisi : MTA Rapor No (Yayımlanmamış), Ankara.

  • Tokgöz, T. ve Bilginer, Ö., 1980, Acıgöl (Nevşehir) kalderası rezistivite etüdü : MTA -.Rap,. No : 7154 (Yayımlanmamış)

  • Wagner, G.A.., Storzcr, D. vc Keller, J.., 1976» Spaltspnrcnda- .üenmg qu ar tarer. Gesteinsglaser aus dem Mitte İm eer- •raum : Neu.. Jahr,, für, Min, Monat.,, 1976/2» 84 - 94.

  • Wagner, G.,, 1.987, Deutches .Archäologisches Institut Demircihöyük - Die Ergefoenis.se der ausgrabungen 1975- 1978 Herausgegeben, von, Man&ed Korfrnann, Band `II ; Naturnissenschafüiche Untersuchung en (1987),,, Verlag Philipp von. Zabern Mainz, am Rhein,,, 26 - 29.

  • Wrigjit, G.A. ve Gordus, A.A.» 1969, distrubution -and utilisation, of obsidian, from. Lake Van Sources between 75000 and 35Ö0 B.C.: Amer,, Jour. Arch,., 73, 75-77.

  • Yeğingil.» Z. ve Göksu, Y., 1981 „ Obsidiycnlcrin Fizyon izi tarihlendirraesi : Tubitak Doğa Bilim Derg., A, 5/3» 185-188.

  • Yeğingiî» Z,.,„ 1981, Arkeolojik, obsidiyen. bulguların fizyon izleriyle tarihlendirilmesi : Tubitak Arkcomctri Ünitesi İÜ. Bilimsel Toplantı Bildiriler kitabı, 13-19

  • Ycgîngil, Z., 1984, Fizyon izleri ve arkeoloji : Tubitak Arkeometri Ünitesi Bilimsel Toplantısı I Bildiri özetleri kitabı, 182-189,

  • Ycğingil, Z.,1985, Fizyon izleriyle tarihlendirme yönteminin, obsidiyenlere •03fgula.nma.s1 :: Tübitak Arkeometri Ünitesi Bilimsel Toplantı V Bild.iri.ler kitabı,. 94-100.

  • Yegingil, Z.,1987, Obsidiyen ve Anadolu`daki farklı yerleşim bölgelerine ait obsidiyenlerin kaynak belirleme çalışmaları : Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Eski Escrcr ve Müzeler Genel Md.lüğü III Arkeomctri sonuçlar Toplantısı Bildiri özetleri kitabı, 193-201

  • Yıldırım, T. ve Özgür, R., 1981 Acıgöl kaldcrası : Jeomorfoloji Derg., 10; 59-70.

  • Yıldırım.,, T., 1984, Acıgöl volcanism and hat dry rock, possibities, Nevşehir, Turkey ;: Sern.in.ar on. Utilization of Geothermal Energy for electric, power production and. space Heating, Florence-, italya.

  • Remote- sensing lineament interpretation for mineral exploration in Gongola, East Nigeria
    Murat Avci
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the mineralization zones are related to linear and curvilinear features. This is. due to the magma differentiation process where by the mineral rich fluids either solidify along existing lineaments (fractures) forming linear features, or intrude into the upper crust as igneous bodies forming; curvilinear features These linear1 features are conspicious and easily recognized on remotely .sensed data which invites the attention to the anomalous geologic features :fcr detailed investigation. Previous experiements to identify mineral target areas on LANDSAT imageries give encouraging results. Similarly; a Nigerian LANDSAT image interpretation indicates areas of high, potential for mineralization in South Gongola State,, Eastern Nigeria.

  • Gongola

  • Eastern Nigeria

  • Potential Mineralization Belts

  • Remote Sensing Method

  • GRANT, N.K., 1971, A compilation of Radiometrie ages from Nigeria. : Jour. .Mining Geology, V.6, 37-54.

  • KUTTNA, J., 1.969, Hydrothermal ore deposits in the Western United States: A new concept of structural control of distribution : Science,, V.165, 1113-1119.

  • LATHRAM, E.H.. and GRYE, G., 1973;,. Metallogcnic significance of Alaskan gcostructures seen from space: Proceedings, 8th Int. Symp. on. Remote Sensing of environment, Ann Arbor, Mich.,, 1209-1211.

  • OFFIELD, T.W., et al 1.977, Structure mapping on enhanced lands at images of Southern Brasil: Tectonic Control of Mineralization and speculations on Nctallogcny: Geophysics, v. 42, NO,. 3, 482-500.

  • OVERSBY, V.U., 1.97,5, Lead isotopic study of Aplitcs from prccambrian Basement rocks near Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Earth Planetary Sei. letters,, V. 27,, 177- 180.

  • ROWAL, L.G., 1975,,, Application of Sattelites to geologic exploration: American Scientist, v. 63,, 393-403,

  • ROWAN, L.C, LATHRAM, B.H., 1980, Mineral Exploration in Remote Sensing in Geology, Editors,, Sicgal B.S. and Gillespie, A.R. John Willey and Sons,, N.York.

  • SCHUUJNG, R.D., 1962, Tin Belts on the Continents round the Atlantic Ocean: Econ. GeoJ, v. 62, 540-550.,

  • SUTHERLAND-BROWN` and Others 1971, Mctallogeny of the Ganadian Cordillera: Canadian List. Mining and Metallurgy tans., v., 74,, 121-145.

  • TRASWELL, F.J.. and. Cope, R.N., 1963. The geology of parts of Niger-and Zaria provinces: Geol. Surv. Nigeria, Bull., 29/52 p.

  • WRIGHT, J.B., 1970 Controls of mineralization in the Older and Younger Tin fields of Nigeria., Economic Geology, V.,65, 945-951.

  • VAN` BREMEEN, O. et al 1976., Age and Isotopic studies of some Pan-African granites from North, Central Nigeria, Prccamb. Res., v,4, 307-319.

  • Route hcaîion and significance of geology on route selection
    İlyas Yilmazer
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    ABSTRACT : Route location is an important aspect of highway engineering., It proceeds a comprehensive transportation planning and. forms basis to highway design. Â route selection study is a multidisciplinary job. The common participated members are economist» archtiect,, city planner, environmentalist, sociologist, geomorphologist, and engineers. In engineering sense, geological study includes geological mapping, identification of major geological structures, lilhological propertics, hydrogcological characteristics» geomorphological features, natural slopes, distribution and types of mass movements,, distribution of aggregate sources (pit and quarries), and so forth, These items are effective on cost - benefit analysis and route evaluation as well as highway design characteristics. The main purpose here, is a scientific information spreading of general criteria of a route location study. Type, trend, and extent; of faults can control route, location. If the situation is properly understood, it may help to locate route in order to minimize related stability -problems along; an alignment. Folds, bedding attitudes» lithological contacts,, and intensity of joints and. fractures have effect on stability of motorway structures.. Engineering characteristics of the prevailing liihologies are quite important in the mute location study. Recognition of drainage pattern, seeps and. springs,, swamps, and marshy soft grounds, interrelationships between natural slopes and mass movements, surface and .groundwater conditions,, and their` basins future use (long term) plans have also significant role, in route location., Gravel - sand and crushed rock have place value rather than unit vale,. Therefore their analysis in. terms of quantity, quality, and areal distribution may also have influence, on route location, and as well as. highway design.

  • Route Selection

  • Road Engineering

  • Geomorphology

  • Hydrogeology

  • Geology Map Acquisition

  • Preston, E.S., 1975,, Route Location: Handbook of Highway Engineering,-. 187-216.

  • Relationship between soi! composition and shear strength; Upper Pliocene deposits (Ankara)
    Recep Kiliç
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    ABSTRACT : The engineering properties of a soil depends on the composite effects of several interacting and often interrelated factors as compositional and environmental., In this research.» mincralogical composition and geotecrmical properties of Upper Pliocene deposits» collected from. Sincan, Beşevler and Kavaklıdere sites (Ankara),, are studied and correlated. The samples» inorganic clay of high plasticity (CH),, and inorganic silt of high plasticity (MH) are used as the material. Deposits consist of quartz» calcite, albite and clay minerals.- Sincan deposits contain about 20 percent montmorillonit. Montmorilionit. causes decreasing in internal friction, and shear strength of the Sincan deposits and aparts from gcotechnical properties of Beşevler and Kavaklıdere deposits.

  • Soil Composition

  • Shear Strength

  • Upper Pliocene Sediments

  • Ankara

  • Bir and, A,., 1.978 Ankara yöresi zeminleri ve jeo teknik sorunları : Yerbilimleri Açısından Ankara`nın Sorunları Sempozyumu, Türkiye. Jeol. Kur. yayını. 55 - 60`

  • Erol, O., 1973, Ankara Şehri Çevresinin Jeomorfolojik Anabirimleri : A.Ü. Dil ve Tarih. - Coğr. Fak. Yayın No: 240, 29 s.

  • Erol,, O. ve dig,.,,, 1980., Ankara. Metropoliten Arazî. Kullanım Haritası :: .M..T.A. Genel Müdürlüğü Raporu, 99 s,

  • Kasapoğlu, K., E., 1982, .Ankara kenti zeminlerinin jeomühendislik özellikleri: Yerbilimleri, 9, 19 - 40.

  • Kılıç, R., Demirbaş, E,.,,, 1988, Sincan (Ankara) Kepir gölü çevresinde killerin jeo teknik özellikleri : Hacettepe Üniversitesi`nde Yerbilimlerinin. 20. Yılı. Sempozyumu.,,. 25-27 Ekim.,. Bey tepe:,, Ankara.

  • Kılıç,, R., 1.989; Almanya Federal Cumhuriyeti Konsolosluğu (Ankara) ek bina inşaatları jeoteknik raporu (basılmamış), A.Ü. Fen. Fakültesi, 48. s

  • Kılıç,, R., 1990, A.Ü .Fen Fakültesi ile Konya devle ty olu arasındaki alanın jeoteknik incelemesi, A.Ü. Araştırma Fonu Proje raporu,,. 8 - 05- 01 - 01.

  • Kiper, B., 1983, Etimesgut-Batıkent yöresindeki Üst Pliyosen çökellerinin jeo-mühendislik özellikleri ve konsolidasyonu : Doktora Tezi,, Hacettepe Üniv. Jeol. Müh, Böl., 16ÖS.

  • Mitchell, K,, J. 1976» Fundamentals of Soil Behavior, John Wiley,, Sons;, Inc., New York.

  • Olson, R., E., (1974), Shearing Strength of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite : Journal of the Geotechnical Division. A.S.CJB., Vol. 100, No. GT11, pp. 1215-1229.

  • Rominger, J., and Rutledge, P., C,.,„ 1952, Use of soil mechanics data correlation and interpretation of Lake Agassiz sediments, J., Geol. 60 (2),. 4, 180 p.

  • Sergei,,, A., 1976,; Survey of the Geotechnical Properties of Ankara Soils,» MS `Thesis,.

  • Classification and faciès models of carbonates platforms
    Eşref Atabey
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    ABSTRACT: Carbonate platforms can be classified into four groups as; carbonate ramp» rimmed carbonate shelf» isolated-platforms and, drowned carbonate platforms. In this, paper, the terms of ramp, rimmed, shelf; isolated platform and drowned, platform .are used to describe gcomorphic, two-dimensional features. •Carbonate, ramps may be homoclinal or distally steepened and may have fringing o:r barrier shoal-water complex, of ooid/pellet sands, or skeletal banks Homoclinal ramps pass seaward into deeper-water, without major1 break in slope, and they lack deep-water breccias. Distally steepened ramps may be low energy, .and are. characterized by widespread, .shallow» sub wave-base mud blankets, or high energy with coastal beach-dune, complexes and widespread skeletal sand blankets.Rimmed carbonate shelves have relatively flat,tops and marked break in. slopes at. shallow-shelf edge, where they  pass into deep water.. They may be accretionary or depositional, and. bypass types include gullied, .slop, escarpment, and high- relief erosional forms Intraslielf basins, occur on. some shelves., controlling distribution, of reservoir and. source beds Isolated platforms are on rcfted continental margins» or on submarine volcanoes,. Platforms that have been, subjected to rapid .sea level rise may be incipiently drowned,, .and are characterized by raised rims, elevated patch on fine clastic blankets. The various types, of platforms change in ..response to vari.ati.ons. in sedimentation, subsidence or sea. level rise, and may form distinctive- evolutionary sequenc

  • Classification of Carbonate Platforms

  • Facies Models

  • Submarine Volcanoes

  • AHR,W,M., 1973» The carbonate ramp-an alternative to the shelf model: Gulf Coast Assoc. of GeoLSoc.Trans., 23,, 221-225.

  • ATABEY,E-> 1990, Karbonat platforrnlarinin sınıflanması, fasiyes modelleri ve evrinü/Torös .Karbonat Platformu, A.Ü.FenBiL Enstitüsü, Doktora Semineri,, 108s.

  • BEACEtDX, and GÎNSBURG, R.N., 1.980, Faciès succès sions of Pliocene-Pleistocene carbonates, nortwestcrn Great Bahama Bank: AAPGB11II., 64,, 1634-1642,.

  • BLENDINGER.W., 1986» Isolated stationary carbonate platforms: the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) of tlu* Marmaloda area, Dolomites, Italy, •Sedimentolo^y,,33,159- 183

  • BURCHETTEXP., 1988,Tectonic control on carbonate platform faciès distribution and seguence developmenfcMiocene, Gulf of Suez, Sedimentary Geol., 59,179-204

  • DtETZ,R.S.,and HÖLDERIC,, 1.973. Geotectonic evolution and subsidence of Bahama, platform: Reply, CtoL Soc:Amer.Bull., 84, 3477-3482.,

  • DOMINGUEZXX..,andMULLMSJH,T.,HINE,A.C,l 19:88,,, Cat Island platform Bahamas: An incipienlly drowned Holoccne carbonate shelf, Sedimentology,35,805- 819.

  • ELtUK,L.S.,1978,The Abenaki Formation.Nova Scotia shelf, Canada. A depositional and diagenetic model for a Mesozoic carbonate platform, Bull.of Canad.Petr. Geol.,26,424-514

  • GlNSBURG,R.N.,and JAMES,KP.,1974tHoloccne carbonate sediments of continental shelves,in. CA.Burk and C.L.Drake.eds./The geology of continental margins,Ncw York,Springer-Verlag, 137-155.

  • G Ö RÜR ,N., 1979 »Karaisalı kireç taş inin (Miyosen) sedimentolojisi, Türkiye Jcol.Kur.BulL 2:2,227, 232.

  • HlLEMEN.M.C^and MAZZULLO,J.S.„eds, 1977,Uppcr Gnadalupian faciès, P! ermi.an reef complex, Guadahıpc Mountains, New Mexico and west.Texas, Permian Basin Section, SEMP, Publ. 77-16,45-92.

  • KARABIYIKOĞLU.M. ve ÖRÇEN.S.,1986, Mımzur Dağlan, linyit içeren Alt Miyosen çökellerinin sedimentolojisi ve biyostratigrafîsi:MTA Raporu, Der.no: 8034.

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