Jeoloji Münendisliği Dergisi
Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

1991 KASIM
COVER
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COPYRİHT PAGE
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CONTENTS
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TO OUR READERS
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Geological réévaluation of some sedimentary basins from the hydrocarbon viewpoini in Türkiye
Sadettin Korkmaz Abdullah Gedik Selahattin Pelin
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ABSTRACT: In this article several geological features and hydrocarbon potentials of some sedimentary basins located in different regions, in Türkiye are reevaluated in the light of recent, ideas and developments.

  • Turkey

  • Tortul Basins

  • Oil Potential

  • Economic Value

  • Akarsu, İ, 1981, Ülkemizin, petrol potansiyeline Mr bakış, Petrol İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü Dergisi,, 25, 199-203.,

  • Aydın, M., Serdar,, H.S. ve Şahimürk, Ö,, 1932, Orta Karadeniz Bölgesinin jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları, Türkiye 6.. Petrol Kongresi, 63-71.

  • Birgili, S`., Yoldaş, R, ve Ünalan, G., 1975, Çankın-Çomm havzasının jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları, MTA rapor no: 5621.

  • Çekunof, A.V. ve Riyabin, L.Î., 1973, Karadeniz çanağının bazı oluşum soranları ve Neojen ve Antrepojen`deki Jeotektonik özelliMeri (Çeviren: S. Erinç), İLÜ., Coğrafya Enstitüsü Dergisi, 10, 18/1.9, 231,-252,

  • Demirtaşlı, E., 1976, Toros kuşağının petrol potansiyeli,, Türkiye 3. Petrol Kongresi,, 55-61

  • Demirtaşh, E., Tütüncü, K. ve Gedik, A., 1965 Tekman havzasının 1/25.000 ölçekli jeoloji, haritası, MTA Enerji Hammadde Etüd ve Arama Dai. arşivi, Ankara.

  • Gedik, A, 1978, Doğu. Anadalu`da açılan stratigrafik istikşaf (açınsama) sondajları,, Yeryuvarı ve İnsan, 3, 3, 31-35.

  • Gedik, A., 1985, Tekman (Erzurum.) havzasının jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları, MTA Dergisi, 103/ 104, 1-24.

  • Gedik, A., Birgili, Ş., Yılmaz, H. ve Yoldaş, K.,, 1979, Mut-Ermenek-Silifke (Konya-Mersin.) yöresinin, jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları, TIK Bülteni, 22, 1, 7-26.

  • Gedik, A,., Ercan, T,, ve Korkmaz, S,., 1984, Orta Karadeniz (Samsun-Sinop) havzasının jeolojisi ve volkanik kayaçların petrolojisi, MTA Dergisi, 99/100, 34-50,

  • Gedik, A.., Ercan, T., Korkmaz, S. ve Karataş, S,, 1989; Rize-Fındıkh-Çamlıhemşin arasında (Doğo. Karadeniz.) yer alan mağmatik kayaçların petrolojisi ve Doğu Pontidlerr deki bölgesel yayılımlan, Ahmet Acar Jeoloji Sempozyumu, s. 61.

  • Gedik,,, A. ve Korkmaz,. S,., 1.984,. Sinop havzasının jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları, Jeoloji Mühendisliği, 19, 53-79.

  • Gedik, A.,,,, Özbudak, W., Korkmaz, S..,,, Iztan, H. ve Ağrıdağ, D.S., 1931, Sinop havzasının jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları ile ilgili ön sonuçlar, TJK 35., Bil. ve Tek.. Kurultayı, Bildiri özetleri, 35- 36, Ankara

  • Gönenç, O.., Granit,. S,, Korkmaz,, S.., îztan, H,, Tekeli,, T., 1979, Bucak-Korkuteü-Elmah (Batı Toroslar) arasındaki bölgenin 1/25.000 ölçekli jeoloji haritası, MTA Enerji Hammadde Etüd ve .Arama Dai. .arşivi, Ankara.

  • Göksu., E., 1981, Türkiye`nin petrol potansiyeli hakkında düşünceler, .Petrol İşleri Genel. Müdürlüğü Dergisi, 25, 149-158.

  • Günay, Y., Bölükbaşı, S. ve Yoldemir, .O., 1982,,, Beydağlarının stratigrafisi,,, Türkiye 6. Petrol Kongresi, 91-101

  • Ketin, İ.,, Görür», N. ve Akkök, R,., 1981, Petrol bölgelerimizin genel jeolojik durumları ve petrol aramaları hakkında görüşler, Petrol işleri. Genel Müdürlüğü Dergisi, 25, 121-124.

  • Ketin, î. ve Gümüş, Ö., 1963» Sinop-Ayancık arasında 3. bölgeye dahil sahaların jeolojisi, hakkında, rapor, TPAO raporu, no: 288.

  • Korkmaz, S.,, 1979, ısparta N 24-a2, a3, bl, b4 paftalarının jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları,. MTA Enerji Hammadde Etüd ve .Arama Dai.. arşivi, rapor no: 134

  • Korkmaz, S.,, 1984,, Boyabat (Sinop) kuzeydoğusunun petrol yönünden, jeolojik ve jeokimyasal incelemesi. Doktora tezi (yayınlanmamış), 193 s. KTÜ, Trabzon.

  • Korkmaz, S., 1987, Bozova (Korkuteli) kuzeyinin jeolojisi, S.Ü... Müh.-Mim. Fak.., Dergisi,,, 2, 28- 36

  • Korkmaz, S., 1990 a, Sivas havzasında ana. kaya, fasiyesi ve petrol oluşumunun organik jeokimyasal yöntemlerle araştırılması, Jeoloji Mühendisliği, 37, 61-68.

  • Korkmaz, S.,,3 , 1990 b, Soğuksu-1 kuyusunda (Sinop havzası) ana kaya fasiyesi ve petrol oluşumunun organik jeokimyasal yöntemlerle incelenmesi ve koyu ile yüzey verilerinin karşılaştırılması, TPAO rapor no: 2825.

  • Korkmaz, S,., ve Gedik, A,, 1988, Rize-FındıklıÇamtıhemşin arasında .kalan bölgenin jeolojisi ve petrol oluşumları, Jeoloji Mühendisliği, 32/33, 5-15,.

  • Korkmaz, S..., ve Gedik, A., 1990, Mut-ErmenekSilifke (Konya-Mersin.) havzasında ana kaya fasiyesi ve petrol oluşumunun organik jeokimyasal yöntemlerle incelenmesi, Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni, 33, 29-37.

  • Kuıtman, F., 1.973, Sivas-Hafik-Zaıa ve İmranlı bölgesinin Jeolojik, ve tektonik, yapısı,,, MTA Dergisi, 80, 1-32.

  • Kıırtman, F. ve Akkuş,-M.F., 1971, Doğo Anadolu`daki ara basenler ve bunların petrol olanakları, MTA Dçrgısi, 77, 1-9

  • Özbudak, N., Yoldaş, R,., Yüksel, V. ve Ünalan, G., 1.983, Alakır-1 kuyusunun (Batı Toroslar) jeolojik özellikleri, Petrol işleri Genel Müdürlüğü Dergisi, 28, 1.09-122

  • Özgül, M.., 1976, Toroslann bazı temel jeolojik, özellikleri, TJK Bülteni, 19, 1, 65-73,.

  • Pelin, S., 1981, Pasinler (Erzurum) havzasında ana kaya özelliklerinin ve petrol oluşumunun açıklanması, KTÜ Yer Bilimleri Dergisi, Jeoloji, 1,2,-127-143

  • Pelin, S., ve Korkmaz, S., 1981» Karadeniz`in petrol potansiyeli, KTÜ Yer Bilimleri Dergisi, Jeoloji, 1,2, 145-147

  • Pelin, S., Özsayar, T., Gedik, I. ve Tokel, S., 1980, Pasinler (Erzurum.) havzasının petrol olanakları yönünden jeolojik incelenmesi, MTA rapor no: 6748

  • Saner, S., 1980, Batı Pontidler`in ve komşu havzaların levha tektoniği kuramıyla açıklanması, KB Türkiye, MTA Dergisi, 93/94,1-19.

  • Sokolov, B.A,, Gaynanov, A.G., Nesmeyanov, D.V. ve Ser eğin, A.M., 1973, Petroleum Resources of Seas and Oceans, s,. 141-146,, Moskova, Rusya

  • Sonel, N., 1988 a, Boyabat, havzası (Sinop) birimlerinin petrol ana kaya özellikleri, S.U.. Müh., Mim., Fak., Derg., 3, 1, 80-97.

  • Şenalp, M., ve Gökçen, S.L., 1978, Haymana (GB Ankara) yöresindeki petrollü kumtaşlannın sedimantolojik incelemesi, TJK Bülteni, 21, 1, 87- 94

  • Ünalan, G., 1982» Kalecik-Tüney-Sulakyurt (Ankara) arasındaki bölgenin petrol oanaklarının araştırılması, Doçentlik tezi, 88. s., ÎÜFF,,. İstanbul.

  • Ünalan, G., 1984, Alakır-1 sondajında (Finike) kaynak kaya incelemeleri, ,MTA raporu no-: 7483..,

  • Ünalan, G., ve Haıput, B., 1983, Çankırı havzasının batı kenarına ilişkin Üst Kreta.se ve Alt Tersiyer yaşlı çökellerde kaynak kaya, incelemeleri, `TJK Bülteni, 26, 2, 176-186.

  • Ünalan, G,, ve Yüksel,, V., 1978, Eski bir graben. örneği: Haymana-Polatlı havzası, TJK Bülteni, 21, 2, 165-169

  • Ünaian, G., Yüksel, V.., Tekeli, T. s Gönenç, O., Seyirt, Z. ve Hüseyin, S., 1976, HaymanaPolatlı yöresinin (GB. Ankara) Üst Kretase-Ak Tersiyer stratigrafisi ve paleocoğrafik evrimi, TJK Bülteni, 19,159-176,

  • Yalçınkaya, S.., Ergin, A.., Taner, K.., Afşar, ÖJE, Dalkılıç, H.. ve Özgönül, E.., 1986, Balı Toroslar Jeolojisi raporu, MTA rapor no: 7898,

  • Yılmaz, O. ve Şener, M,, 1984, Erzurum-Pasinler, Erzincan-Çayırlı, Kars-Tuzluca, Malatya-Hacılar stratigrafik açınsama kuyulanna ait örneklerin xışınlan tekniği ile incelenmesi,,, TJK Bülteni, 27, 1, 31-40.

  • Yoldaş, R., Keskin, B., Granit,, S.,, Korkmaz, S., Didik, S., Kalkan, L, Ağndağ, D.S., ve Besbelli, B..., 1.985» Samsun ve dolayının (Kızılırmak ve Yeşilırmak arasındaki, bölgenin.) jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları, MTA rapor no: 8130.

  • Yüksel, V. ve Korkmaz,,, S., 1982, Mitoloji, Jeoloji ve Turizm: `Olimpos`un sönmeyen alevi, Yeryuvarı ve İnsan, 7, 2, 3-4.

  • Yüksel, V., Yoldaş,. R., Kartal, T., ve Korkmaz, S., 1981, Alakır antiklioalinin (Finike) jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları, MTA rapor no: 6933.

  • Secondary Porosity in Sandstones
    Hükmü Orhan
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary porosity play an important role in the diagenesis of some santstones. Studies after 1970`s have shown that more than half of the porosity in sandstones is secondary in origin. Chemical. Physicochemical, biochemical, physical, and biophysical presses result in secondary porosity through, leaching and shrinkage of rock constituents or through the opening and shrinkage of rock constituents or through the opening of fractures.. Secondary prosity can originate anywhere in the diagenetic history.. Most of secondary prosity in ancient sandstones formed as a result of mesogenetic leaching of the carbonate minerals such as calcite, dolamite and siderite. Secondary porosity resulting from, the dissolution of unstable framework or cement» such as feldspar, carbonate, sulfate or rock fragment is common in sandstone. Recognition, of secondary porosity should be based on multiple evidence because monfractured secondary porosity often mimics primary porosity.. Pétrographie criteria for recognizing secondary porosity Include partial dissolution, molds, inomogeneus packing, oversized pores, carrodedr grains, intraconstltuent pores and fractured grains.

  • Sandstone

  • Secondary Porosity

  • Sedimentary Storage

  • Metamorfizma

  • Fhysical

  • Chemical

  • Atwaier, G.I. and EJE, Miller, 1.965, The effect of decreake in porosity with depth on future development of oil and. gas reservoirs in southern Lousiana (Abs): Am.. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 49, p., 344,.

  • BM.rl.ey, S.D. and J.D.. Kantorowicz, 1986, Thin sectiöon and S.E.M. textural criteria for the recognition of cement-dissolution porosity in sandstones: Sedimentology, v,. 33,,, p. 587-604.

  • Chepikov, K.P., Y.P. Yermolova and N.A. Orlova and N.A., Orlova, 1961, Corrosion of quartz grains and examples of the. possible effect of oil on the reservoir properties of sandy rocks: Doklady of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Earth Science Sections, v. 140, P. 1111-1113 (In English).

  • Hayes, J.B., 1979, Sandstone diagenesiös- the hole truth, SEPM Special Publication 26, p. 127- 139

  • Maxwell,, J..C, 1964. Influence of depth, temperature and. geologic: age on porosity of quartzose sandstone. Am, Assoc. Petroleum. Geologist Bull. v. 60, p. 543-553

  • McBride E.R, 1977,,, Secondary porosity, importance in sandstone reservoirs in Texas; Transactions of the Gulf Coast association of Geological Societies, v.. 27, p... 121-122,

  • Pittman, E.D.t 1979, Porosity, diagenesis and productive capasity of sandstone reservoir, SEPM special Publication 26,», p. 159-173..

  • Proshlyakov, B.K., I960, Reservoir rocks as a function of their depth and litfaology Geo. Neffi Gaza, v. 4, no. 12, p.. 24-29.

  • Savkevich, S..S...J.969, Variation in sandstone prosity in, lithogenesis (as related to the- prediction of secondary porous oil and gas reservoir): Doklady of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Earth Sciences Sections, v. 184, p. 161-163 (in English)

  • Schmidt, V,., D.A. McDonald, and R.L. Platt, 1979, Pore geometry and reservoir aspectis of secondary porosity in sandstones: Canadian Soc. Petroleum Geologists Bull, v. 25, p. 271-290.

  • Schmidt, V,., and D.A. McDonald, 1979 a. The role of secondary porosity in `the course of sandstone diagenesis: SEPM Special Publication 26, p. 175- 207.

  • Schmidt, V..:I, and D.A. McDonald, 1979 b, texture and recongition of secondary porosity in sandstones: SEPM Special Publication 26, p. 209-225.

  • Shanmugan, G., 1984, Secondary prosity in sandstone: Basic contribution, of Chepikov and Savkevich: AAPG Bull. v. 68 P,. 106-107.

  • Shanmugan, G., 1985, Significance of secondary porosity in interpreting sandstone composition: AAPG Bull. v. 69 p. 378-384.

  • Surdam, R.C., Crossey, L.J., 1987, Integrated diagenetie modelling: A proccess-oriented approach for clastic systems; Ann,. Rev. Earth Planet. Sei., v. 15, p. 141-170

  • Surdam R.C, and Crossey» L.J., 1984, `The chemistry of secondary prosity. In D.D. McDonald and R.C. Surdam (eds), Clastic Diagenesis; Amer,. Assoc. Petrol... Geologists Memoir., 37, p. 127- 149

  • Tissot, B.P. and Weite, D.H., 1982, Petroleum Formation and occurrence, New York, Springer-Verlag» 638 pp

  • Ore Deposits in the Uluhşla-Çamardı (NİĞDE) Basin
    Ali Çevikbaş Önder Tunali
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    ABSTRACT: The Ulukışla-Çamardı basin is bordered by .Niğde group in the north, Bolkar group in the south, and Ecemiş fault in the east The basin is divided into three sections in terms of stratigraphy and lithology. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the genesis, mechanisms, mineralogies and deposit properties of extensive mineralizations in the studied area., As a result of investigations,,, main mineralizations, some of them are of economic interest, related to magmatisxn resulted from continent-continent collision are Karıncadağı Pb-Zn-Cu, Alkoyağı dere Co, Karnıoğlu Fe-Cu, Esendemir tepe Fe-Co-Cu, Uçurum tepe Cu, Cipcip dere Fe-Cu, Kayserilinin dere Cu and Yağlıtaş Pb-Cu

  • Niğde

  • Ulukışla-Çamardı Basin

  • Mineral Deposits

  • Mineralizations

  • Mineralogy

  • Continent-Continent Collision

  • Apaydın, Ş, s Özraen, A.,, 1979, Niğde-UlukışlaBolkatâağı-Kayserilinin Dere Sahası Bakır .aramaları raporu, MTA Derleme No: 6850 (yayınlanmamış).

  • Ateş,, M.Z., 1985, Esendemir Tepe (Koçak-UIukışlaNiğde) Demir Skarn Yatağı Metalojenik İncelemesi. Ç.Ü. Fen Bilimleri EnstitO.su jeoloji Müh,, Böl. Master Tezi, Adana, (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Çağatay,, A., ve Pehlivan,, N.A., 1988, Celaller (NiğdeÇamardı) kalay cevherleşmesinin minerolojisi. Jeoloji mühendisliği dergisi, Mayıs-Kasım, sayı 32-33, s. 27-31

  • Çağatay, A.,, ve .Arman, B., 1989, Bolkardağ Sulucadere (Ulukışla-Niğde) kalay içerikli, çinko-kurşun cevherleşmesinin minerolojisi, Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni, Şubat-Ağustos, cilt 32, sayı, 1-2, s.. 1.5-20

  • Çalapkulu, F., 1979, Bolkardağ maden yatağının j eok i my asal incelemesi : E .Ü. Yerbi 1 im 1er i Fakültesi, Doçentlik tezi, 146 s. (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Çevikbaş, A., 1991, Ulukışla-Çamardı (Niğde) tersiyer havzasının jeod.inam.ik evrimi ve maden yatakları yönünden önemi: Doktora tezi (Yayınlanmamış), Î.Ö., Müh. Fak. Jeoloji Müh. Bölümü, İstanbul, 235 s

  • Çevikbaş, A. ve diğ.. 1991, Pozantı civarının jeolojisi ve maden •yatakları hakkında, rapor, MTA Maden Etüd ve- Arama Dairesi, (yazımda). Ankara

  • Yener, K.A., ve Özbal, H., 1986, Toros dağlarında kalay: Bolkardağı maden bölgesi, Arkeometri ünitesi bilimsel toplandı bildirileri... TÜBİTAK yayınları, .Ankara

  • Yıldırım, M. Şenocak, H., Sarman; E., Ateş, M.Z, Yaşar, A., ve Karakaya, Y., 1984, Bolkardağı-5ulucadere (Ulukışla-Niğde) polimetal. cevherleşmesi etüd raporu, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel. Müdürlüğü derleme raporu,, No; 7670, Ankara.

  • About the depositional Environment of a Pliocene Aged Unit Cropping out Around Ankara
    İlyas Yilmazer
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    ABSTRACT: A Pliocene aged, geological unit, which is mostly reddish brown colored, crops out at many places around the Ankara city,. Many geographical locations over the unit are called, with a prefix "kızıl" denoting the characteristic .reddish brown color of the. unit. Therefore the unit is named as Kızıl formation (Plk). There are two common suggestions about the depositional environment of the Plk; — Pik has been deposited by meandering and. braided, rivers. — Plk has deposited in intermountain basins (ponds-lakes). In order to gather geological data, and to find, more evidences,, six distinguishable Pliocene Basins, around Ankara were studied. Identification of the PIk`s depositional environment in datait, can. provide valuable information to implement effective investigation, methods to carry out geotechnical properties of the Plk at any study .area in this unit., Naturally» engineering properli.es of the unit depends mainly upon the position and. location of any delineated site. Grain, size, composition, thickness of layers, areal extent, interested depth, distance, from paleoshore, and. catchment, area properties, are main factors which control geotechnical properties of the unit at a given site. The Plk has deposited over a hummocky topography. Its basal level elevation on the same line along short axis of Hatip ovası basin, changes from > 1200 m to < 700 m. It consists mainly of sedimentary breccia, conglomerate, and sandstone along border zone whereas siltstone, muds tone, and claystone along longitudinal axis of basins.. Sorting from shore to the deepest part is quite common in the Pliocene basins .around Ankara.Main cement type in the unit is CH clay Consequently rock  structure breaks easily and partly turns into soil where it has been fully saturated for long period.However bedding planes remain distinct. This situation is observable mainly along long axes of basins Moderately weak to moderately strong sedimentary rocks, along border zone, gradual ly transits into extremely weak sedimentary rocks toward the deepest part of a basin In addition to the high CH clay content and saturation,, stress relief is well effective on engineering properties of the unit. Therefore the uppermost level of the unit, especially over a gently sloping and .relatively wide area whichs includes thick pebbly soil mantle derived from the Plk, is called Pebbly soil member (Plkp).Evaluation of numereous field investigation and laboratory works support basically the second suggestion which says that the Plk. has deposited, in intermountain basins. It is difficult to find geological, evidences to support, the proposal saying the Plk has formed as stream, deposits.

  • Ankara

  • Red Formation

  • Geotechnical

  • Wear

  • Brinkmann, R., 1976, Geology of Turkey: 158 pp. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam - Oxford-New York,.

  • Erentöz, C, 1975. Explonatory text of the geological Map of Turkey: Mineral research and Exploration In.siitu.te, Ankara

  • Erol O., 1973 a, Ankara Şehri çevresinin jeomorfoljik ana birimleri: Dil Tarih Coğrafya Fak. Yay. 240,. 29.S. Ankara..

  • Erol O., 1973 b, Quaternary pluvial and interpluvial conditions in Anatolia since the last glaciation: Symposium, of history of environmental conditions on. South West Asia from the last pleninglacial till today» 23-30 february 1.978, Tübingen..

  • Hunt R JE., 1986, Geotechnical engineering analysis .and evaluation: 729 pp. McGraw-Hill Company. New York,.

  • Kiper, Q.B,,,, 1984, Pliyosen`de Ankara ile EtimesgutBatıkent havzaları, arasında, uzanan paleosırt: Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi, s 21, 34-38,

  • Lapone, L.F., 1968, Ancient Environments: .116 pp.. Prentice-Hall, Inch.., Neglewood Cliffs, New-Jersey

  • Lerman, A..,, 1978, Lakes, Chemistry, Geology, Physics: 363 pp. Springer-verlag, Berlin., •

  • MTA,, 1963, 1/500.000 ölçekli jeoloji haritası (Zonguldak paftası):

  • Ozansoy, F., 1957, Türkiye Tersiyer memeli faunaları ve stratigrafik revizyonları: MTA Derg. 49. Ankara

  • Ozansoy; F., 1961, Ankara Bölgesi fauna teakubu etüdünün esaslı sonuçları: MTA Derg,, 56, Ankara.

  • Pickard, M.N.-.ve High L.R. JR, 1972, Criteria for recognizing lacustrine rocks: In Recognition, of Acient Sedimentary Environmenmts. pp.. 108 - 1456,. Spec. Publ. Soc. Econ. Paleont. Miner,., 16,. Tulsa, 4.8.1.

  • Reading, H.B.,,,, 1986, Sedimentary environments and fades: 615 pp.. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London.

  • Selley, R.C., 1970. Ancient sedimentary environments: 237 pp. Çhapmann and. Hill. London. 1,1

  • Selley; R.C., 1976. An Introduction to sedimentology: 408 pp. Academic Press London. 2.2.1.8.9.

  • Yilmazer, 1., 1981. Geology of the Lalahan-Kayaş Region; Msc. Thesis.. METU. Ankara. 6.3 p.. (Unpublished).

  • Yilmazer, L, 1988, Engineering geology of the Ankara - . Gerede Ankara Peripheral Motorway (Unpublished): Parsons Brinckerhoff International Ankara..

  • Yilmazer, I., Gallerani J., Boray, A., Dawson, A., and Tattersal J., 1989,. Geotechnical reports of the Ankara-Gerede and Ankara Peripheral Motorway (unpublished): Parsons Brinckerhoff International» Ankara.

  • Yilmazer,,, I, 1990, Ankara Kilini.içeren Pliyosen göl çökellerinin Ankara ve çevresindeki dağılımı ve jeolekoik özellikleri: Ankara Kili Simpozyumu bildiri özleri kitabı,, Ankara

  • Yilmazer, 1.,,, 1991 a, Gerede-Ankara ve Ankara Çevre Otoyoluna genel ve jeoteknik açıdan bakış: jeoloji Mühendisliği, 38, .Ankara.

  • Yilmazer, 1., 1991 b, Ankara Kilini içeren, Pliyosen, göl çökellerinin jeoteknik özellikleri, (Hazırlanmakta).

  • The significance, of gradient wells and subsurface temperature.measurements for geothermal energy exploration
    Ali İhsan Gevrek
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the significance of subsurface temperature and geothermal gradient wells are briefly evaluated lor geothermal energy exploration. The world average geothermal gradient is considered to be 25°C/km. Thermal conductivity of rocks strata, regional, heat flow conditions, subsurface- thermal water moment, and global tectonic phanoraena are controlling` for geothermal gradient. Some extraneous factors that affect shallow depth temperatures (1-15 meter) are local, variations in the character and moisture content of the near surface materials, topography, depth to water table, vegetation, and microclimate,, so that. shallow température, distributions are not enough to provide economically usable thermal fluids. The principal advantage of temperature measurements at such, shallow depths in comparison, with deeper measurements are their relatively lowcost in both time and money

  • Gradient Drillings

  • Underground Temperature Measurements

  • Geothermal Energy

  • Tectonic

  • Altınlı, I JE., 1986, Yerbilimleri Sözlüğü, MTA Genel Müdürlüğü yayınları No: 195, Ankara

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  • Olmsted, I.H., 1977, Use of temperature survey at a depth of meter in geothermal exploration in Nevada. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 1044-B.

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  • Geology, Mining and Worldwide Production ofWollastordte Deposits
    Güler Can
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, general properties, occurence, fields of usage of wollastonite which gained its popularity after 1950Ts are introdudeced and its economic importance are summarized with the examples given from, various countries and Turkey.The `aim of this paper is to provide an. introductory review on wollastonite to contribute towards studies related to wollastonite

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  • Mining

  • Crystal Size

  • World Production

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  • Mining Annual Review,,, 1990..

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  • Vedat Oygür
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  • Ilıca Type

  • Epitermal

  • Gold Bearings

  • Fault Zone

  • Volcanic Rocks

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  • Giles, D.L. ve Nelson, CE.., 1982,, Principal features of epithermal lode gold deposits of the CircumPacific Rim: Circuin-Pacific Energy Minerals Conf,,, Honolulu,,, Hawai, 1982, 22-2,8

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  • te&mqtitets j.Wi m tteHiëy,tt*W:j 19SS: MydrutHifwit eruptions in the Waiotapu geothermai system... New Zealand: their origin, associted breccias and. relations to precious-metal mineralization: Econ. Geol..,,, 80, 1640-1668...

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  • Lipman, P.W., Fisher. F.S., Mehnert, H.H.,, Naeser, C.W.,, Lydke, R.G. ve Steven, T.,A., 1976,,, Multiple ages of mid-Tertiary mineralization aod alteration, in the western. San Joan Mountains, Colorado: Econ. GeoL, 71, 571-588,

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  • Ahmet Hikmet Köse
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  • Historical and Mythological Data

  • East and Middle Black Sea Region

  • Civilizations

  • Mining Activities

  • Halil Yusufoğlu
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  • Remote Sensing

  • Thrust Fault

  • Wyoming Thrust Generation

  • Hydrocarbon Production

  • A.sami Derman M. Demirer Alaattin Sayili Mustafa İşbilir
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  • Turkey

  • Coastal and Marine Sciences

  • Hydrografi and Oceanography

  • Geophysics

  • Gültekin Kavuşan
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  • Mining Law

  • Quarries Nizamname

  • National Values

  • Alaattin Sayili Ali Demirer
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  • Sea Geology

  • History of The Oceans

  • Landforming

  • Kennet, J., 1982., Marine Geology.. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 813 p

  • Kuenen. P.H., 1958.. No Geology Without Marine, Geol. Rundschau v. 47.. p. 1-10.

  • Sylvia., A., and Holister, CD. 1973. Geotechnical Properties of Ocean Sediments Recovered with. Giant Piston Core. 1. in Gülf of Maine, J. Geophpys. Res. v. 78. p. 3597-3616.

  • Osman Özcan Dora
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    ISSUE FULL FİLE
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