Jeoloji Münendisliği Dergisi
Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi

1999/2000 23-24
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Suggested modifications to the empirical Hoek-Brown failure criterion and their applicability
Reşat Ulusay Harun Sönmez
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ABSRACT: The strength of a rock material- is determined in the laboratory on representative standard samples. In the case of a closely jointed rock mass it is not possible to obtain a sample with suitable dimensions to represent the whole rock mass. Since 1980, the empirical Hoek-Brown failure criterion (Hoek and Brown, 1980} began to be used to overcome the difficulties in laboratory shear strength determination of jointed rock masses,. The empirical failure criterion was used in conjunction with the Geomechanics Classification System-RMR (Bieniawski, 1989) until 1994. However, due to the limitations in the RMR classification scheme particularly for very poor quality rock masses and for unrealistic rating adjustments for discontinuity orientation in slopes, the feature criterion has been modified over the years.. Recently,, the originators of the criterion introduced a new index., called Geological Strength index (GSI), in to the criterion. The GSI is based upon the visual impression on the rock mass structure and consists of twenty codes to identify each rock mass category and to estimate the GSI value (Hoek and Brown, 1997). Because rock mass classification requires time consuming procedures and has some limitations, the existing GSI system seems a more practical parameter for the determination of the strength of jointed rock masses from field observations. However,, the system is lack of measurable and more representative parameters, and related interval limits or ratings for describing the structure and surface conditions of discontinuities. This situation results in subjective assessments on the determination of the GSI value: In other words,, it is possible to estimate different GSI values for the same rock mass by different persons. The other importani problem of the criterion is the use of undisturbed and disturbed rock mass categories for determining the parameters in the criterion, for which clear guide Une s are lacking.. It is also noted that the data supporting of the revisions have not been published. These uncertainties make it difficult to judge their validity and performance.. In order to provide a more quantitative basis for evaluating GSI values, the authors of this paper suggested some modifications by introducing easily measurable rock mass parameters with ratings and/or intervals. For the purpose, two terms, namely Structure Rating (SR) based on volumetric joint count and- Surface Condition Rating (SCR) from, the input parameters are introduced in to the GSI system, and the modified GSI chart is established. In the latest version of the failure criterion (Hoek and Brown, 1997; Hoek et al., 1998) average undisturbed in-situ conditions are considered to estimate the GSI without application of any adjustment due to any disturbance effect, such as Masting.. Method of excavation,,, major planes of weakness or change in stress are considered, as local features influencing the rock mass at a particular .location. Therefore,, the influence of such factors should be compensated, and necessary adjustments should be taken in to consideration. In this study, a method was proposed to assess the influence of disturbance on rock constants due to method of excavation as discussed in detail by Sönmez, and Ulusay (1999`),, The modifications and the method suggested have been applied to well studied five slope instabilities from Turkey to check the validity and performance of the modifications and the methodology of parameter estimation, Four cases were selected from the slopes excavated in heavily jointed rock masses and one from spoil piles in a strip coal mine. The application of the suggested modifications and the method examined by the hack analysis of the failures indicated that the use of GSI value determined from the suggested modified chart and consideration of disturbance effect confirmed the limit equilibrium condition for the investigated failed slopes. The back analysis results from a spoil pile instability revealed that spoil pile materials consisting ofblocky and angular rock pieces with small amount of fines could be categorized as a disintegrated rock mass in the GSI system and the criterion seemed to be applied to spoil materials,. However, future applications of the suggested modifications on to failure case studies both from surface and underground excavations may provide a better tool for more precise guidelines and to check the performance of the equations of the criterion.

  • Back analysis

  • Hoek-Brown failure criterion

  • Geological Strength index

  • Rock mass

  • Spoil pile

  • Slope stability

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  • Sönmez, H., and Ulusay, R..., 1999. Modifications to the Geological. Strength Index. (GSI) and their` applicability to stability of slopes,. International Journal of Rock. Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 36(6),, 743 - 760.

  • Ulusay, R.., 1991. Geotechnical evaluations and determlninistie design considerations for pitwall slopes at Eskihisar (Yatağan-Muğla) strip coal mine,. PhD dissertation, Middle East. Technical University,, Ankara., Turkey, 340 p (unpublished).

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  • Ulusay, R., Yoleri,, MJF., Çağlan, D. and Arıkan, F., 1995b., Design, evaluations for` spoil piles at, a. strip coal `mine considering safety of the haol road.. International Journal of Surface Mining,, Reclamation, and Environment, 9.,. 133 -140..

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  • Ulusay, R., Ekmekçi, M., Gökçeoğlu,, C.,, Sönmez,, H.,, Tuncay, E. ve Erdoğan, E.,, 1998. Himmetoğlu Linyit Açık İşletmesi şev stabilité etüdü: 1. Aşama - A panosu şevlerinin duraylıhğı. Hacettepe Üniversitesi» Proje No: 97 - 0058, 24,5 s.

  • Water quality analysis of the Hemmer and Nau`r aquifer springs in the Snf area, North Jordan
    Abu Rukah Y.h. Nabu. S. Abderrahman
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    ABSTRACT: In recent, years,, the Suf area, has `become highly populated, increasing- the demands on water resources for various uses.. This, study aims, to evaluate the water quality of major` springs In the. Suf area.. In this respect. 11 mainsprings emerging from two different aquifers (Hummer aquifer` A4,, and Nau`r limestone aquifer Al) werechemically analyzed... Chemical analyses performed include -TDS,, Ca3+, Mg2+, Na+ K+, CT, HCO3 ; SO42" .and NO3as, well as pH, EC and. temperature. Results, show that these springs, have different chemical compositions, which,reflect., to a. large extent, the geological character of the two aquifers. In. addition.,, historical data on. spring chemistry were also used to show the variations and. long term trends in water quality., Generally,» the waters of majorsprings in the area, are of HC0` 3 and. Ca2+ type... Chloride ,and sodium ions make the main contribution to- the salinity of spring waters,, while $Q2 4 and Mg21" concentrations are moderate. Over all, chemical content of groundwater from various, springs is dominated by NO3, HCO`3, Cl",, Na+, and, Ca2+`.. Suf, Fawwer,, Um-Faraj, Al-garaj andNabhan springs show, to some extent, degradation in. the water quality.

  • Hummer1 and Nau`r` aquifers

  • Groundwater quality

  • Jordan

  • Suf region

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  • Am example for preparation of probabilistic risk mmp of wedge type faüures: Altındağ (Ankara)
    Candan Gökçeoğlu Murat Ercanoğlu Hama Sönmez
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    ABSTRACT: The evaluation of potential rock slope failures using stereographic projection techniques known as kinematic analysis is one of the most important parts of a slope stability investigation to be carried out in in jointed rock media.., In conventional stereoprojection techniques for the assessment of possible rock slope failures,, the peak orientations of joints together with the slope geometry and the friction angle of the weakness planes are used,, Other possiMe joint orientations which may be encountered in the rock media are ignored.. In the presemi study, possible wedge failures which can develop in jointed andésites cropped out .Ankara, and its vicinity were investigated using both conventional and probabilistic kinematic analysis methods, and risk maps were produced using the results obtained from kinematic analysis and. a. comparison was made between the results: According to the results obtained front this study, probabilistic risk map are more realistic than the map using conventional kinematic analysis,, because, all the actual wedge type slope failures developed in the study area are located on the risk zones of the probabilistic risk map. When three peak orientations of the discontinuities are used for the preparation of the risk map, 20% of the study shows wedge type failure risk. However, `this value goes up to 73% when the probabilistic kinematic analysis: is applied, in conclusion, each possible discontinuity orientation must be taken in to consideration in a kinematic analysis research program.. This phenomenon is important for the selection and planning of settlement regions particularly, because,, a failure can cause important hazards ami loss of life.. Besides, the procedure described in the present study is very simple.

  • Altındağ (Ankara)

  • andésite

  • kinematic analysis

  • probabilistic analysis

  • risk map

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  • Tuncay, E.., 1999. TKl-Himmetoğlu linyit açık işletnıesindeki şevlerin duraylılığının determinisük ve olasılığa dayalı yöntemlerle değerlendirilmesi.. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Fen Bilinilen. Enstitüsü, Ankara, Yüksek Mühendislik Tezi. 165 s. (yayımlanm

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  • Wo, T..H,, Tang, W..HL, Einstein, H.H., 1996. Lvesli. de Hazard and risk assessment. Landslides Investigation and Mitigation, (Editors Turner and Schuster) Special Report 247`., Transportation Reseaeh Board National Research Couneil, National. Academ

  • Young,, D.S., 1993. Probabilistic slope analysis for structural failure. International Journal of Rock Mechanics Mining Science and Geomechanics Abstracts,, Vol.30, No.7, 1623-1629..

  • Young, D.S., ve Hoerger, S.F., 1988. Geostatsitics applications to rock mechanics,. International Proceedings of 29 th. US Symposium on Rock. Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN, Brookfield.,, A.A.. Balkema, 271,-282,.

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  • Improved methods for ore deposit evaluation: ring decomposition method and its application
    Cem Saraç Sermin Köçek Arzu Giray Yurdagül
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    ABSTRACT: Ore deposit evaluation techniques by geostatistical simulation were first introduced some 25 years ago,, it has not fulfilled its promise as a major toot in the eartksciences. This has been largely due to two main reasons; there are some shortcomings in the method which, although recognized early on by some practitioners,, have been stow to be acknowledged and rectified, and alternatively wide usage qfkriging methods (there is although a big difference between kriging and simulation). Â survey of geostatistical simulation methods is given in Dowd (1992). Amongst proposed methods is Davis" (1987a) LU (lower and upper) decomposition method and related matrix- polynomial approximation method (Davis,, 1987b). The LU-matrix (lower and. upper) decomposition method of conditional simulation allows fast generation of stochastic processes on smallmoderate sized, grids. The method is simple and based on the LU triangular decomposition of the matrix of covariances between data, locations and simulation grid, locations (Davis, 1987a; Alabert,, 1987).. Covariances matrices are symmetric and positive-definite and therefore can be decomposed in to the product of a lower and an upper triangular matrix,. The advantages of the LU method are that it is simple to implement, performs conditioning simultaneously with simulation, is not limited to particular forms of covariance functions and handles anisotropies,. The main drawback of this method is the amount of storage required which, at least in its general form as presented,, effectively limits its application to less than 1000 grid locations. When there are many data, or when there is a large number of points on which values are to be simulated, the correspondingiy large matrices cannot he handled by classical decomposition algorithms

  • Covariance

  • G`eostatistical simulation

  • Ore deposits

  • Ring decomposition method

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  • Davis, ML, 19871b, Generating large stochastic simulations- the matrix polynomial .approximation method: Mathematical Geology, v. 19, no. 2, 99-108.

  • Deutsch, C.V.,, and Journel, A...G.,,, 1.998, GSLIB, Geostatistical Software Library and User`s Guide: Second Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 369 s.

  • Dowd, P.A., 1992,, A review of recent developmentsin geostatistics: Computers and Geosciences, v. 17, no. 10,1481-1500.

  • Dowd, P.A. a&d Saraç,. C, 1993, An extension of the LU decomposition method of simulation, in Geostatistical Simulations, eds: P.A. Dowd and M. Armstrong: Kluwer Academic Publishers., `The Netherlands., 23-36..

  • Gomez-Hernandez, XX and Srivastava, R.M., 1990.» ISIM3D: an ANSI-C three-dimensional multiple indicator conditional simulation program: Computer and Geosciences, v. 16,, no. 4, 395-440.

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  • Journel, A.G. and Alabert, F., 1990, New method for reservoir mapping;: Journal of Petroleum Technology, v.. 42,, no.. 2,, 212-218..

  • Kaseli, F., 1982, Modules and rings: London Mathematical Society, Academic Press Inc., England.

  • Saraç, C. and Tercan, A.E.,. 1992, A geostatistical case study of the .Kizilyuksek-Yataardic chromium orehody: The first international symposium on Eastern Mediterranean Geology,, Çukurova. University, Adana, Turkey, 219-229.,

  • Suro-Peiez, V. and Journel, A.G., 1990, Stochastic simulation of lithofacies and improved sequential indicator approach: Proc. Second European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery (ECMOR), Publ. Technip, Paris, 3-10.

  • Tercan, A..E. and Saraç,. C, 2000, Spatial variability of Cr2O3 % in Kizilyuksek-Yataardic chromium deposit (Adana.,. Turkey): International Geology Review (in press)..

  • Investigation of soü deformations at the Kızıltepe (Sillef Konya) slopes
    Adnan Özdemir
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, deformations occurred on the buildings located doing the sloping surface of Kızıltepe located 6km Northwest of Konya, of Plia-Quaternary age silty and clayey sand were investigated., Inclinations of the slopes range between 5°h and 15°}?. The foundations ofttiplex houses and six stories apartments were build partlyon the natural soil and partly on the fiil ground. Six months after the construction, fence wails had been collapstd and some apartments had been leaned and dangerous cracking occurred. Using Modified Bishop and Modified Janbu methods, stability analysis of Kızıltepe slopes have been made on the 20 selected profiles, involvingdeformed buildings and naturel soils and fill ground. Calculated safety factors have shown that there are not in stability problems on the natural slopes. On the improved and- loaded slope profiles, safety factors generally exceed 1,5, excepting two of profiles where safety factors are found as 1,3 and 1,4. No indications of landslips havebeen observed. According to the result of consolidation tests in the 50 kN/m2 pressure stage,, coefficient of compressibility of filled soil to the natural soil ratio is approximately 3,9. This ratio shows that fiil ground undergoesmore settlement than natural soil. Differential settlements up to 13 cm have been determined The cause of deformations in the structures are thought to be due to differential settlements

  • Fill ground

  • Konya

  • Slope stability

  • Bishop, A. W., 1955. The use of slip circles in stability analysis of earth slopes.. Geoteehnique,, 5.» 7-17 pp.

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  • Eren, Y., 1993. Konya Kuzeybatısında Bozdağlar Masifinin otokton ve örtü birimlerinin stratigrafisi. TJB.. 36-2 , 7 s..

  • Janbu, N., 1954.. Application of composite slip circles for stability analysis, proc. European conf. on. stability of Earth slopes, Stockholm, 4, 43-49 pp..

  • Jhonson, R., B. and Graff J., V.. , 1994.. Engineering Geology a Laboratory Manual. Macmillan Publishing Company, New-York, 190 p.

  • Koppemian, S. and J.,, R., Carpenter 1985.. PCSTABLE4 User`s Manual.Federal Highway Administration report FHWA-TS-85-229, Washington, D.C., 100 p.

  • Me Donald, D.JHL, and A. W Skempton, 1955. A Survey of comparisons between calculated and observed settlements of structures on clay; conference on correlation of calculated and observed stresses and displacements. ICE, London, 318-337 pp..

  • Özdemir,, A., .1984. Sille-Meram (Konya) Sahası jeoloji ve zemin ineeleniesi...Selçuk Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü.,,.Konya..,, Yüksek Mühendislik Tezi,, Konya, 155 s (yayınlanmamış).

  • SMP (Soil Mechanics Piling) „ 1996. Komvilev Villaları zemin, araştırma sondaj loğu. SMP Müh Ltd. Şti, Ankara, 10s, (yayınlanmamış).

  • Wahts, H, E., 1981... Tolerable settlement of buildings.. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division.., American Society of civil Engineers, 107, No,. GT11, 1489- 1504 PPGeotogkai

  • Problems faced im the applications of the point load index test
    Tamer Topal
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    ABSTRACT: The point load index, test is .based on the principle that rock sample is broken between two conical platens..Faiiure load and specimen dimensions are used to calculaie the point load strength index and this index is usedin engineering geological studies.. In this paper, the problems related to the point load testing device and the common mistakes of the users are discussed. Based- on the experience of the author, a proposal far including "B* "dimension of the rock, failure time, and. textuml and structural information of the failure stiff ace of rock in thepoint load test form is given, k-value, defining the ratio between the uniaxial compressive strength (s&J and thepoint load strength index (Js(50))f varies significantly for different rocks. Therefore, k-values for different rocksshould be assessed for engineering projects. In this study, a linear relationship with high correlation coefficientbetween (oc) and (ls^{rj) is given for tuffs,

  • Engineering geology

  • k-value

  • Point load strength Index

  • Tuff

  • Uniaxial compressive strength

  • Abbs, F.A., 1985. The use of the point load index in weak carbonate rocks, ASTM Special Technical Pub. 883 (R,.C, Chancy and K.R., Demarsi, Strength Testing of Marine Sediment, Laboratory and In-situ Measurements, 413-421pp.

  • AI Jassar, S.H.,and Hawkins, A.B.,, 1979, Geotecfani- - . eal properties of the Carboniferous- limestone of the Bristol area-the influence of petrography and chemistry. 4th. Conferen- • - • ce on International Society .for Rock Mechanics,, Montreoux,

  • Anıl, M, Kılıç,, A., Kahraman, S,, Sandıkçı, M., ve Akyıldız, M., 1996.. tscehisar (Afyon) mermerlerinin `petrografik ve mekanik özellikleri... KTÜ Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü 30. Yıl Sempozyumu, Cilt 1, 436-447s,

  • Anon, 1972.. The preparation of maps and plans in terms of engineering geology., Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology,,, 5,. 293- 382pp.

  • Beawis, F.C., Roberts, F.L, and Minskaya,L.s, 1982. Engineering aspects of weatheriog `of low grade metapelites in an arid climatic zone., Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 15, 29-45pp.

  • Bell, F.G., 1992, Engineering properties of soils and rocks.. Butterworth-Hein&nann, Oxford, 345 p.,

  • Bieniawski, Z.T., .1975,. The point-load test in geotechnical practice. Engineering Geology, 9, M lpp.

  • Bieniawski, Z.T., 1989. Engineering rock mass classifications. Wiley, New York, 264 p.

  • Bowden,, A. J. Lamom-BLick. J., and Ulhutt S., 1998. P»uni load testing of weak rocks with particular reference to chalk. Quarterly Journal of Engineering ( ie» »1« >g. 11, 95-103pp..

  • Broch, E., 1983. Estimation of strength .anisotropy using the point load test, International Journal of Rock Mechanics,, Mining Sciences and Geomechanical Abstracts, 20, 1.81.-187pp.,

  • Broch,. E., and Franklin, J.A., 1972.. The point load strength test. International Journal of Rock, Mechanics.,, Mining Sciences and. Geomechanical Abstracts, 9, 669-697pp.

  • Brook, ML, 1980. Size correction for point load testing (Technical Note).. International Journal of Rock Mechanics, Mining Sciences and Geomechanical Abstracts, 17, 231- 235pp.

  • Brook, N.,, 1985., The equivalent core diameter method of size and. shape correction In point load testing. International Journal of Rock Mechanics,,, Mining Sciences and Geomechanical Abstracts,, 22,, 61 -70pp..

  • BSI, 1981. Code of practice for site investigations- BS 5930., British Standards Institution, 147 p.

  • Cargill, IS,, and. Shakoor, A,., 1990., Evaluation, of empirical methods for measuring the uniaxial compressive strength of rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics, Mining Sciences, and Geomechanical Abstracts,,, 27,,, 495-503pp.

  • Carter,, P.G., and Sneddon, M., 1977. Comparison of Schmidt, hammer, point load and unconfined compression tests in Carboniferous strata. Proceeding Conferance on Rock. Engineering,, Newcastle, UK, 1.97-210pp.

  • Cavagnara, R.L., 1980,. Geotechnical testing for Leigh Creek Coalfield. Proceeding; 3rd. Australian and New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics., Wellington, 1,,, 237- 242pp.,

  • Chau, K...T., and Wong, R.H.C., 1996. Uniaxial compressive strength and point load strength of rocks (Technical Note). International Journal, of Rock Mechanics, Mining Sciences and Geomechanical Abstracts, 33, 1.83- 188pp.

  • ELE, 1990, Point, load test apparatus,, Operatinglnstnıctions, ELE International Ltd,, 13 p.

  • Fookes, P..G.,/Gourley, C.S., and Ohikere, C, 1988.. Rock weathering in engineering time. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 21, 33-57pp..

  • Förster, I.R., 1983., The influence of core sample geometry on the .axial point-load test (Technical Note)., International Journal of Rock Mechanics, Mining Sciences and Geomechanical Abstracts, 20, 291-295pp.

  • Greminger, M., 1982. Experimental .studies, of the influence of rock anisotropy on size and shape effects in point-load testing` (Technical Note). International Journal of Rock. Mechanics,, Mining Sciences and Geomechanical Abstracts, 19, 241-246pp.

  • Guidicini, G.., Nieble, CM.,, and Cornides, AX, 1973.. Analysis of point load test as a method for preliminary geotechnical classification of rocks., Bulletin of International Association of Engineering Geology, 7, 37-52pp..

  • Hagenaar, L, Sijtsma, H., and Wolsleger, A.., 1984. Selection and use of piles for marine structures, in coral formations, and carbonate sediments. Conference on Piling and Ground Treatment, Institution of Civil Engineers,, Thomas Telibrd, London, 77

  • Hassani, F.P.,,, Scoble, MJ., and Whittaker, B.N., 1980. Application of the point load index test to strength determination of rock and proposals for a new size-correction chart. The Stale of the Art in Rock Mechanics, Proceedings 21th. US. Symposium

  • Hawkins, A.B., 1986,. Rock descriptions, Site Investigation Practice:Assessing BS 5930, Special Publication No.2, 59-72pp.

  • Hawkins,, A.B., 1998,. Aspects of rock strength. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 57(1), 17-30pp.

  • Hawkins, A.B., and Olvcr, J.A.G., 1986. Point load tests: Correlation factors and contractual use. An example from the Corallian at Weymouth. Site Investigation Practice: Assessiog BS 5930., Special Publication No.2, 269-27 lpp.

  • ISRM, 1972. Suggested method for detemiiriing the point- load strength index.. ISRM Committee on Field Tests, Document No. 1, 8-12pp.

  • ISRM,1985. Suggested method for determining point load strength.. International Journal of Rock Mechanics, Mining Sciences and Geomechanical Abstracts, 22, 51-60pp.

  • Jenni, J.P., andBalissat, M., 1979. Rock testing methods performed to predict the utilization possibilities, of tunnel boring; machine, Proceedings of 4th., fat. Soc. Rock Mechanics,,, Mo.ntr.eoux,, 2, 267-273pp.

  • Kahraman, S., 1996. Basınç direnci tahmininde Schmidt ve nokta `yük indeksi kullanmanın güvenilirliği,, KTÜ Jeoloji Müh,. Bölümü 30.Yıl Sempozyumu, Cilt 1, 362-369s.

  • Leung, CF., and Radhakrishnan, R., 1990. Geotechnical properties of weathered sedimentary rocks. Geotechnical Engineering, Thailand, 21, 29-48pp.

  • McFcaL S,, and Tarkoy, P.J., 1979.. Assessment of tunnel boring, machine performance. Tunnels and Tunnelling, 11 (10), 33-37pp.

  • Norbury, D.R., 1986,. The point Load test. Site Investigation PracticeiAssessing BS 5930, Special Publication No.2, 325-329pp.

  • Pettifer,. G.S., and Fookes, P.G., 1994. A revision of the .graphical method for assessing the excavatability of rock,. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 27,145-164pp.

  • Rao, ELS., Venkatappa Rao, G., and Ramamurthy, T., 1987., Strength of sandstone in. saturated and partly saturated conditions. Geotechnical Engineering, Thailand 18, 99-127pp.

  • Read,, J.RJL, Thornton, P.N., and Regan, W.M., 1980. A rational approach, to the point load test, Proceedings 3rd., Australian and New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics, Wellington, 2, 35-39pp.

  • Robins, PX, 1980. The point-load strength test for concrete cores.. Magazine of Concrete Research, 32, 101-11 lpp.

  • Rodrigues, J.D., and Jeremias, F.T., 1990. Assesment of rock durability through index properties. Proceedings 6th. International Congress IAEG.,4, 3055-3060pp.

  • Türk, N., 1988. Kay açların nokta yükleme dayanımını bulmak için yeni bir yöntem. Mühendislik Jeolojisi Bülteni, 10, 25-31 s.

  • Türk,, N., and Dearman, W.R., 1985. Improvements in the determination of point load strength.. Bulletin of International Association of Engioeering Geology,, 31, 137-142s.

  • Türk, N., and Dearman,, W.R., 1986., A new procedure for détermination of point load strength in site investigation,. Site Investigation Practice-Assessing BS 5930, Special. Publication No.2, 406-41 Is.

  • Ulusay, R., Gökçeoğlu, C. ve Bioal A., 1997., Kaya Mekaniği Laboratuvar Deneylen. Ders Notları 39., Hacettepe ÜniversitesiYayın No.3, 53 s.

  • Ünal, E. ve Tbüuoğlıı, L., 1986, Kaya Mekaniği İlkeleri, Seminer no.6, ODTÜ Maden Mühendisliği Bölümü,, 223 s,

  • Wiesner, E., and Gillate, S J., 1997. An evaluation of the relationship between unconfined compressive strength and point load strength index. Bulletin of loternational Association of Engineering Geology, 56,,, 115-118pp.

  • Wijk, G.,, 1980.. The point load test for the tensile strength of rock.,. Geotechnical Testing; Journal,,, 3, 49-54pp.

  • Wilson,. L.C., 1976.. Tests of bored, and driven, piles in Cretaceous mudstone at Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Geotechnique, 26, 5- 12pp..

  • Investigation of the usebüity as cut and paving stone of the travertine occurencess located west of Sivas, Turkey
    Emrah Ayaz Erguo Karacan
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    ABSTRACT: Sıcak Çermik, Sankaya and Uyuz Çermik travertine deposits around Sivas are among the most importanttravertine deposits in Turkey. Travertine deposits consist of nearly pure caleite, and. show stratifonn and veintype depositional styles, Banded and spongy structure and micritic texturtfis dominated within the stratifonn typetravertines, while albatr structure and sparitic texture is dominant within the vein type travertine occurences .In this study; industrial characteristics such as; block size, color and ornament sliding, polishing., mohs-hardness, slake durability index, schmidt hardness, transparancy, unit volume mass; specific mass, compactness ratio,water suction relative to mass and volume, porosity, abrasion, uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial compress ive strength lifter the frost, bending strength, blowing strength,, durability lo the frost, frost lost durability toatmospheric influences, resistance to rusting and acids were investigated and evaluated.The results of these investigations and évaluations show that all these characteristics ofihe travertines inthese deposits range in the Iimites what should be in travertines and they are well qualified materials, suitable touse as facing stone

  • Cut-stone

  • paving-stone

  • Sıcak çermik

  • Sivas

  • Travertine

  • Uyuz çermik

  • Anon, 1979, Classification of rocks and soils for engineering geological mapping, Part-1, rock and soil materials; Report of the Comission of Engineering Geological Mapping, Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology,,, No: 19,

  • AST.M, 1966, Testing techniques for rock mechanics; Amer., Soc, Test. Matr, Philadelphia, S.T.P. No: 402p.,

  • Ayaz, M.E., 1.998.. Sıcak Çermik (Yıldızeli - Sivas) yöresindeki traverten sahalarının jeolojisi ve travertenlerin endüstriyel özellikleri. C..Ü. Fen Bil., Enst, Doktora Tezi (yayınlanmamış), 157s.

  • Ayaz,, M.E, ve Gökçe, A.,, 1998.. Sivas batısındaki Sıcak Çermik, Sarıkaya ve Uyuz Çermik traverten yataklarının jeolojisi ve oluşumu. Cumhuriyet Univ., Mühendislik Fak. Dergisi, Seri A: Yerbilimleri Sivas,,, İ5/l,.l-12s

  • Gamble,. I. C, 1971, Durability-plasticity classification of shales and other- .argillaceous rocks; Ph. D., thesis. University of Illinois, 380 p.

  • ISRM, 1978, Suggested method for the quantitative description of discontinoues in rock mass; Geo. 10`h Standart of Lab. and Field Test.., T i i ı> i AM AM- c * i AU

  • ISRM, 1981, Basic geo.echaical description of rock masses; International Society of. Rock. Mechanics Commission on „the Classifica tion of Rock and. Rock Masses, Internaïi- onal Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mi ning Sciences and Geomechanical Abst-ra

  • MTA., 1966. Türkiye mermer envanteri. MTA yayım, MTA yayın DG: Ankara, 35 s.

  • TSE, 1977, TS 2513 - Doğal yapı taşlan; Tüıt a r d l a n ^ m ^ A n k a r a -TSE` 1 9 8 7 ` T S 6

  • SEM studies on microstructure of fired kaoline - illite - quartz bodies
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    ABSTRACT: X-Ray diffraction, pétrographie microscopy and SEM analysis are used together to obtain qualitative aod quantitative information on the microstucture of kaoilinite-illite-quartz bodies,.. The pétrographie- microscope is used to analyse of the microstructure and mineralogy of the fired products. Bur the results have not been entirely satisfactory because of the inability to detect crystalline particles, of submicrometer mulHte, cristobalite and pores, The. body consists of mullite cristobalite and quartz (crystalline phases) in a composite structure where crystals and porosity are embedded in the matrix of amorphous/glassy phase.. Both glass and amorphous phases .appear in more or less significant amounts in all the studied fired clay bodies., The presence of quartz, detrital mica, and Ca- Na feldspar indicate bodies-being usually fired under nonequlibrium conditions and that many chemical reactions do not go to completion because of the lack of sufficient, heat treatment and of intimate contact of the constituents. If the reactions were allowed to go to completion this would result in a large glassy phase that would endanger the desirable properties of the clay based ceramic bodies.

  • Turtle, MA., Cook,,, R.L.,1949 Fundemental study of crystalline and glassy phases in whiteware bodies J.Amer.Ceram. Soc. 32. 9 279294

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    ABSTRACT: The techniques used in the gold mining are not different front the ones used in the other metallic ores, Following the liberalisation, the ore excavated from the mine is subjected to the extraction process for the gold. According to the mineralogy of the ore., cyanidation, floatation or gravita ton is applied- at this stage.. Cyanklation has a share of 83 % in the world g(dd production at present. Developed countries provide 70 % of the world gold production. Cyanide (CN), is a simple compound of carbon and nitrogen continuously met through the daily life.. Cyanide produced by the different plants is present in the natural environment as well. Cyanide, not resembling to the ottter chemicals dangerous for the environment,, is know!} as a material not accumulating in the living organisms and non-carcinogenic or -mutagenic. It is na tit ratty degraded and decomposes to its elements by sunlight, bacteria and plants. Varions cyanide complexes are used in the metal processing and e tec!Toplat ing,, mining, plastics, paint, electronics, agricultural chemicals and medicines.. Sodium cvankle used in. the mining sector is less than 20 % of the total demand for cyanide. The cyanide import t »f Turkey is 2500 Urns in the previous year to use in the industry.. Sodium cyanide has been used safely and effective!)` in the gold mining fin- 100 years., Bui it is a dangerous chemical that must always be used with caution. The adverse effect of cyanide to the environment is successfidly prevented by the measures taken during and after the mining activities. Cyanide concentration of the solution is towered by the chemical destruction method to i ppnı i I tng/t) level fitting with the standards for the waste deposition. Then, this material spreading at the tailings pond is destntcted completely by the effect of sunlight Tailings pond is reinforced from the bottom and the flanks with clay and geomemhrane in order to prevent the leakage in to the environment. Practically, it is accepted that lining these two materials in succession provides the "zero permeability*`. It is ktwwn from the researches that the process water discharged to the tailings pond is completely destriicted between 5 and 12 mouths according to the cyanide concentration, it is clearly indicated, in the various publications that due to the cyanide use in the gold mining there has been any accident resulted in death till today..

  • Gold mining

  • Cyanide

  • Anadolu Üniversitesi Tip Fakültesi, 1993, Dulkadir Köyü sağlık taraması sonuçları; Göğüs Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı, Rapor No 93- 59.

  • ATSDR, 1997, Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs), Cyanide, CAS 000143-33-9, US DepL of Helath and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Release,.

  • Bayraktar, 1., 1.996, Çevre ve altın liretimi; 21, Yüzyıla Girerken Türkiye Madenciliği..,, TMMOB Maden Mühendisleri Odası, s.63-79.

  • Bear, L.M., 1963, The mineral resources and mining industry of Cyprus; Rep., of Cyprus, G e - oLSwv. Dept.Bull.Nol.

  • Boisson, P., 1987, Rôle croissant de For sur le marché des matières premières minérales; Chron. Rech.. Mio.,,, No 488, s.,75-79.

  • Çiçek,, F.., 1994, Gümüşköy`de siyanür liçi ile gümüş üretimi; Altın Madenciliği Semineri., Yurt Madenciliğini Geliştirme Vakfı,, s.60-65.

  • Encyclopedia of Chemical technology (Rirk-Othmer), 1992, v.7, s. 765, 773,776, 779, 4,Baskı, Wiley, New York,.

  • Eveleth, R.W., 1978,, New methods of working an old mine; The Future of Small-Scale Mining, UNITAR, Mexico, s.333-339.

  • Fide, E,, 1.995,, Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyetinde maden işletmeciliğinin yarattığı çevre sorunları; Türkçe Konuşan Ülkeler 2. Yerbilimleri ve Madencilik Konferansı.,, MTA Gen. Miid.,, Ankara, s.264-268.

  • Fuller» W.,, 1988,, Cyanides, and the environment with particular attention to the soil; D. van Zyl (ed.), Cyanide and. The Environment, 2.Baski,v.l, s. 19-44..

  • Fuller, W,, Caster,, A.B.. ve McGeorge, W.T, 1950, Behavior of nitrogeneous fertilizers in alkaline calcareous soils; Univ.. Arizona Tech. Bull., no 120; s.451-467.

  • Gönen,, N,.„ Demir, E. ve Özdü, G., 1996,, Altın üretim prosesi artıklarında siyanürün doğal bozunma, kimyasal bozundurma ve geri kazanını süreçlerinin incelenmesi; MTA Gen., Müd„ Derleme Rapor No 9875, Ankara.

  • Gray, J.E., Coolbaugh, M.F., Plunılee, G.S. ve Atkinson, W.W.,, 1994,, Environmental g e - ology of the Summitville mine, Colorado; Econ. geol., v.89, S..2006-2014.

  • Heinen, HJ., Peterson, D.G.. ve Linstrom, R...E,, 1978, Processing gold ores using heap lech- carbon adsorption methods; U.S. Bureau of Mines, Information. Circular 8770.

  • Higgs, T., 199,5, Technical Guide for the Environmental Management of Cyanide in Mining, British Columbia Technical, and Research Committee on Reclamation - Cyanide Sub- Committee, s. II1-17.

  • Hocker,, P.M.,, 1989, Heaps of gold, pools of poison - Cyanide spring; Clementine, Autumn, s.6-11.

  • Hoiatt, J,L.,, Kerriga, E., Olson,, F.A. ve Potter,, G.L., 1983, Cyanide from mineral p r o c e s - sing; P`roceed... of Cyanide Workshop,, U.S.. National Science Foundation and U.S. Bureau of Mines,, Salt Lake City, Utah.

  • Ipekoglu, G., 1995, Omai altın madeni baraj kazası üzerine görüşler; Madencilik Bült, Mo 44, s,. 14-15.

  • İpekoğlu, G^ Çelik,, H. ve Tükel, Ç., 1996, Ovacık altın cevherinin karşılaştırmalı siyanür ve tiyoiire liçi; Madencilik,, v. XXXV, no 4, s.43-51.

  • KiJboro Inc., 1991. Besi available pollution control technology; Ontario Ministry of The Environment, Metal Mining Sector.

  • Korte, F.. ve Collision, F., 1995, From single-substance to ecological process concept: The dilemma of processing gold with cyanide; Ecotoxicology and Environmental Sanity, v.32, s.96-101.

  • Madencilik Bülteni, 1997, Dünyada altın madenciliği, No 53, s3-2L,

  • Marsden, J. ve House, L,, 1993,, The Chemistry of Gold extraction, Ellis Horward, London..

  • Metals Economics Group, 1995, Analysis of worldwide exploration expenditures; Strategic Report, v.8, no 5, 8,1-5.

  • Metals Economics Group, 1996, Overview of worldwide exploration, expenditures; Strategic Report, V..9, no 5,, s.1-5.

  • Mining Environmental. Management, 1996, Oniai reopens.,, March 1996, s.26.

  • Mining: Journal, 1990, Ok Tedl monitoring; Mininng Jour. Special Supplement, v..315, no 8085, s.23-24.

  • Mining Journal, 1995, Dam failure at Omai; v.325, no8311,s.l29.

  • Mininig Journal, 1997a, Sardinian gold pour; September 26,, v.329, no 8448..

  • Mining- Journal Research Service, 1994-,,, The use of cyanide technology in processing gold ores,. European operations and regulations

  • Mining` Magazine, 1996, Refractory gold, technology, April, s. 213-234.

  • Mudder, T. ve Smith,, A., 1994, An environmental, perspective on cyanide,; Mining` World News, v. 6, no 9.

  • Özdemir, 1,1994, Toksikoloji - Akut Zehirlenmelerde Tanı ve Tedavi; Nobel Tıp Kitapları, 2. Baskı, 357 s.

  • Plumlee, G.S., 1995,,, The Summitville mine and its downstream effects; U.S. Geological Survey, Open File Report 95-23.

  • Rouse, J.V., 1990, Cyanide and The Environment; Mining Jour., Special, Supplement, v.315, no 8085, s. 18-19.

  • Smith, A,, Dehnnann, A, ve Puilen, R., 198.5, The effects of cyanide-bearing gold tailings on water quality in the Witwatersrand, S. Africa; Cyanide- and The Environment, D. van Zyl (ed.). Proceed, of Conference, Tucson, Arizona,, Publ. Colorado Stat

  • Smith, A. ve Mudder, T., 1991, The Chemistry and Treatment of Cyanidation Wastes,, M i - ning Journal Books Ltd,., London, 345 s.

  • Smith, A. ve Mudder, T., 1995, Cyanide - Dispelling the myths:; Mining Environmental. Management, June 1,995, s.4-5..

  • Sparrow, G., ve Woodcock, XX, 1988, Cyanide concentrations,, degradation,, and destruction in. mineral proeessing plants and effluents; CSIRO, Division of Mineral Products, Australia, MPC/M-035.

  • Stanton, MB., Colbert, T.A.. ve Trenholme, R.B., 1985, Environmental handbook for cyanide leaching projects; U.S. BepL. of Interior, National Park Service.

  • Stewart,, A.L., 1.984, Gold ore processing today - Part I; Intern. Mining, April, s.21-31.

  • Stewart, A.L., 1989, Developments in gold processing; Intern. Mining, July, s.8-11...

  • Strum, W., ve Hanssen, E.,, 1967, Über Cyanwasserstoff in Prunoideen Samen und. Einigen Anderen Lebensrnittel; Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel- Unterschung und. -Forschung, v,.135,no6, s.2498-259.

  • Tilton, J.E., 1996, .Exhaustible resources and sustainable development; Res. Policy, v.22, s.91-97.

  • US Environmental Protection Agency, 1976, The nianufaetiire and ose of selected inorganic cyanides ; EPA/5 60/6-76-012..

  • US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990, Summary review of health effeets associated with hydrogen cyanide:; EPA/600/8-90- 0Q2F.

  • Vick, S.ti,.,, 1990, Planning, Design, and Analysis of Tailings Dams; BiTech Pub. Ltd., Vancouver, 369s.

  • Vick, S.G., 1996,, Tailings darn failure at Oniai in Guyana; Mining Engng., v.,48, no 11, S.34- 37.

  • Wellmer, F.-W., 1995, Why gold ? Natural Resources and Development, v,41, s36-49.

  • World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, Our Common Fmture; Oxford Univ., Press,, Oxford.

  • World Metal Statistics, 1999, World Mine Production: Gold, July, s. 79.

  • Zadra, J.B., 1950, A process for the recovery of gold from, activated carbon by leaching and electrolysis; IX.8.. Bureau of Mines,, Rept. Investigation 4672,,

  • Apreliminary study on. an English - Turkish - Hungarian karst terminology
    Onur Özbek Yanos Hir
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    ABSTRACT: Although karst features of Turkey are rich,, the studies regarding karstology and speleology have not beganlong ago. By the beginning of 1940`s following the pioneering works of some Turkish, German and French scholars, researchers often found, themselves in difficulty when writing on these sciences as they had. to find an equivalent for each specific word. Researchers like Alagöz (1944),,, Aygen (1959) aod Izbirak (1976) have long agopointed out. the need for such studies in their works. They used some translation words for some new terms aswell as the- words used by local people,. The first and. most detailed study of a karst terminology with Turkish equivalents was published by FAD in, 1972 including 194 entries,. Although, no consistent terminology or glossarystudy has been made about Turkish karst since then, we know that a more detailed study will be on the way byother reearchers, soon.. If we consider the technical terms used by Turkish, scientists in general, we will notice that,they are: generally taken from French, English, and Serbo-Croatian. Also some important French and Serbo-Croatian karst terms are included in this list of 300 words,, The presented work is an attempt to remedy this need though authors are conscious that this attempt fells short of the needs of engineering sciences.. As the colloborationof Turkish and. Hungarian speleologists in the past, few years invoked the need of such attempts,, we strongly hope and wish the: intensive communication of the researchers of these countries in the future., We also believe thatto abet the scientific communication between different language«, the local terminologies of each country must.not be "forgotten in these studies

  • Karstology

  • Karst-terrninalogy

  • Speleology

  • Aktar M. and B. Kara, 1992. Türkiye Speleoloji Kaynakçası. Proceedings of the 1st. National Speleological Symposium., Bosphorus University, Istanbul, 82-87.. (abstract in English)

  • Alagöz, C. A., 1944.. Türkiye Karst Olayları. Türk Coğrafya Kurumu Yayınları: I,, Ankara.. (with summary in French).

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